Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 

The Program Advisors
James R. Blauth, Biology
Susan L. Blauth, Biology
Michael J. Ferracane, Chemistry
Caryl A. Forristall, Biology
David P. Schrum, Chemistry
Linda A. Silveira, Biology
Debra L. Van Engelen, Chemistry
Daniel B. Wacks, Chemistry

The Program
The program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology is designed to prepare students for careers in biochemistry and molecular biology, in the related fields of cell biology, microbiology, molecular genetics, or in the health sciences. Students who satisfactorily complete the following courses receive a bachelor of science degree with two majors, one in biology and one in chemistry.

Students who intend to major in the program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology must file an “intent to major” form with the secretary of the departments of Biology and Chemistry at the time they declare their majors in Biology and Chemistry. This form must be signed by the student and a program advisor from each department.

Learning outcomes for this program may be found at www.redlands.edu/BS-BIOC/learningoutcomes.

Bachelor of Science
Degree Requirements 
The Biology Department requires each major to submit a contract to the department listing the courses that will be used to complete the degree. Degree contracts must be approved by the end of the second semester of the junior year or, in the case of upper-division transfer students, the end of the first semester of residence.

Biology Courses (5 courses/ 20 credits)

Of the 5 courses, students may choose between BIOL 344, BIOL 334, BIOL 326, or BIOL 345. 

BIOL 200 Principles of Biology: Unity and Diversity (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of the diversity of living organisms and how organisms meet the challenges faced by all living things. Laboratory work emphasizes quantitative data collection and analysis while introducing students to biological diversity and physiological techniques.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131.

BIOL 201 Principles of Biology II: Molecular/Cellular Biology and Genetics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of life including molecules and biological processes, the structure of cells, and molecular and transmission genetics. Laboratory work emphasizes biochemical and genetic techniques, data collection and analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 or by permission.

BIOL 239 Molecular Genetics and Heredity (4 Credits)

This course emphasizes the importance of molecular genetics in contemporary biology. Patterns of inheritance, gene structure and function, and techniques using recombinant DNA technology will be emphasized. Laboratory includes classical genetic analysis as well as molecular and biochemical techniques. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and 201 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133).

BIOL 338 Cell Biology (4 Credits)

Structure and function of cells, with emphasis on events outside the nucleus. Study of cytoskeleton, bioenergetics, intracellular communication, control of cell division, and sorting of proteins to appropriate organelles. Laboratory includes fluorescence microscopy, in vitro reconstitution of cellular processes, and subcellular fractionation. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory/discussion.
Prerequisite: BIOL 239. 
Offered in alternate years.

BIOL 344 Human Physiology (4 Credits)

Functioning of the human body at the cellular, systems, and whole animal level. Emphasis on nervous, endocrine, renal, and cardiovascular systems and their interrelationships. Students may not earn credit for both BIOL 334 and BIOL 344. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 334 Comparative Physiology (4 Credits)

Comparison at the cellular, organ, and whole animal levels of physiological adaptations exhibited by various invertebrate and vertebrate animals, including humans. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Students may not earn credit in both BIOL 334 and BIOL 344. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 326 Neuroscience (4 Credits)

Study of cellular/molecular mechanisms, anatomy, circuitry, and functions of the nervous system. Emphasis on clinical neurology and experimental methods. Includes topics such as the senses, movement, language, emotions, consciousness, and learning. The laboratory includes descriptive and hypothesis testing activities. Credit cannot be received for both BIOL 104 and BIOL 326. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239 or PSYC 300. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 345 Immunology (4 Credits)

Study of the physiological, molecular, and cellular basis of host defense. Emphasis will be on the human immune system and its pathogens. Diseases of the immune system, such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and AIDS will also be examined. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 239.

Two Additional 200-300 Level Biology Courses with Molecular Emphasis (2 courses/ 8 credits)

Choose from: 

BIOL 325 Medical Genetics (3-4 Credits)

Clinical aspects of genetic disease and current issues in medical genetics. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic diseases; rare inheritance patterns (anticipation, imprinting); complex genetics (diabetes, obesity, mental illness, cancer); gene therapy; embryonic stem cells/ cloning; genetic counseling; ethics; and governmental legislation. Intensive writing and reading of primary literature. No laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 326 Neuroscience (4 Credits)

Study of cellular/molecular mechanisms, anatomy, circuitry, and functions of the nervous system. Emphasis on clinical neurology and experimental methods. Includes topics such as the senses, movement, language, emotions, consciousness, and learning. The laboratory includes descriptive and hypothesis testing activities. Credit cannot be received for both BIOL 104 and BIOL 326. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239 or PSYC 300. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 342 Advanced Molecular Genetics and Genomics (4 Credits)

Exploration of the analysis of nucleic acid and protein sequence through the use of computer software and high throughput molecular methods. Topics include genome sequencing, the study of gene expression and function, and applications in medicine. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 239.
Offered as needed.

BIOL 343 Microbiology (4 Credits)

Study of microorganisms: their structure, taxonomy, metabolism, genetics, and interactions with humans. Laboratory includes cell culture, microbe isolation and identification, and bacterial genetics. Six hours lecture/laboratory.
Prerequisite: BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 345 Immunology (4 Credits)

Study of the physiological, molecular, and cellular basis of host defense. Emphasis will be on the human immune system and its pathogens. Diseases of the immune system, such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and AIDS will also be examined. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 239.

BIOL 348 Developmental Biology (4 Credits)

Descriptive and experimental approach to the development of selected vertebrate and invertebrate animals from fertilization through aging. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory.
Prerequisite: BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 420 Advanced Biochemistry (4 Credits)

In-depth study of biochemical topics. Specific focus will vary and may range from bioorganic chemistry to the biochemistry of processes taking place at the level of the whole organism. Three or four hours lecture/seminar. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 320 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 260 Topics in Biology (1-4 Credits)

Topics of current interest in biology are covered. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 360 Advanced Topics in Biology (4 Credits)

Recent research developments in biology. An in-depth analysis of the primary literature and the interconnection of fields commonly divided into separate courses will be emphasized. Topics vary with semester. Examples include human genetics, developmental genetics, and cancer biology. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. May be repeated for degree credit for maximum of 8 credits with the instructor’s permission. 
Offered as needed.

Students may take BIOL 360 with permission from instructor. A course emphasizing topics in genetics (e.g., BIOL 325 or BIOL 342) is strongly recommended.

Chemistry Courses (9 courses/ 34 credits)

CHEM 131 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning. 
Prerequisites for CHEM 131: Placement into MATH 118 or higher math course OR prerequisite or co-requisite of MATH 002L or higher math course OR permission of chemistry department. 

CHEM 132 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 132: Grade of 2.0 or higher in CHEM 131 or by permission.

CHEM 231 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 231: Grade of 2.0 or higher in CHEM 132.

CHEM 232 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 232: CHEM 231.

CHEM 320 Biochemistry (4 Credits)

Study of the structure and function of biological molecules (including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids), enzymes, and metabolic pathways. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or by permission.

CHEM 330 Analytical Chemistry (4 Credits)

Principles of analytical chemistry with emphasis on precise measurements and instrumental methods, including molecular and atomic absorption spectrometry, potentiometric and electrolytic methods, separation techniques, chromatography, mass spectrometry, and other specialized instrumental techniques. Experimental design, sampling, and error reduction are studied along with statistical methods of evaluating uncertainty in laboratory results. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 231 and one course from MATH119, MATH 121, MATH 122, OR MATH 221.

CHEM 331 Physical Chemistry I (4 Credits)

Quantum chemistry, spectroscopy, and statistical thermodynamics applied to the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter. The laboratory involves the systematic study of the theory and practice of modern spectroscopic methods. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 122 or higher math course and PHYS 220 or higher physics course or by permission. 

CHEM 332 Physical Chemistry II (4 Credits)

Equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics applied to the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter. CHEM 331 need not be taken before CHEM 332. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 122 or higher math course and PHYS 220 or higher physics course or by permission. 

CHEM 431 Advanced Laboratory (2 Credits)

Integrated project-oriented lab, including computational chemistry; synthesis; characterization; reactivity studies; kinetics; thermodynamics and photochemistry; and the use of instrumental techniques such as ion chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, UV-visible, infrared, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemical methods. As part of this course, students will take the Major Field Test, a comprehensive examination that covers analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry. Six hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: senior standing, CHEM 330, CHEM 332 or by permission. 
Numeric grade only.

Research

Choose one of the following groups:
• 6 credits of BIOL 499 Honors Research (2–4) or 6 credits selected from one of the biology research courses (BIOL 403 to 460)

BIOL 394 Junior Seminar (0 Credits)

Recent advances in biology presented in a seminar format by Redlands faculty, seniors, and visiting scholars.
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 495 Senior Seminar (1 Credits)

In the fall, the course covers B.A. capstone and career development. In the spring, seniors present their capstone projects (B.A.), senior research (B.S.), or honors projects. 
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 496 Senior Seminar (1 Credits)

In the fall, the course covers B.A. capstone and career development. In the spring, seniors present their capstone projects (B.A.), senior research (B.S.), or honors projects. 
Credit/no credit only.

Or
• 1-3 credits of CHEM 378 Chemistry Research (1–4) (depending on chemistry degree track)
• 1 credit of CHEM 476 Senior Capstone Thesis Report or 1 credit of CHEM 478 Senior Research and Thesis (1)
• Three semesters of CHEM 394 Chemistry Seminar (1)
• One semester of CHEM 494 Communication in Chemistry (3)

Or
• 6 credits of BLCM 460 Advanced Interdisciplinary Research in Biology and Chemistry (1–3)
• BIOL 394 (0) or BIOL 495–BIOL 496 (1) or four semesters of CHEM 394 (1)

Note: Research topics must be approved by the departments of Biology and Chemistry.

Related Field Requirements

Mathematics

Choose one of the following groups:

MATH 121 Calculus I (4 Credits)

Functions and their graphs; successive approximation and limits; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations. 
Prerequisite: Permission based on Mathematics Placement Exam. 

MATH 122 Calculus II (4 Credits)

Riemann sums and the definite integral; techniques of integration and application of integrals; introduction to differential equation; sequences and series. 
Prerequisite: MATH 121 or MATH 119 or by permission.

Or

MATH 118 Integrated Calculus I (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations. 
Prerequisite for 118: MATH 002L, placement exam, or by permission.

MATH 119 Integrated Calculus II (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations. 
Prerequisite for 118: MATH 002L, placement exam, or by permission.

MATH 122 Calculus II (4 Credits)

Riemann sums and the definite integral; techniques of integration and application of integrals; introduction to differential equation; sequences and series. 
Prerequisite: MATH 121 or MATH 119 or by permission.

Physics

Choose one of the following groups:

PHYS 220 Fundamentals of Physics I (4 Credits)

Introduction to Newtonian mechanics, fluids, and thermodynamics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. Expects competency in high school algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.

PHYS 221 Fundamentals of Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to oscillations, waves, electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 220.

Or

PHYS 231 General Physics I (4 Credits)

Quantitative study of classical Newtonian mechanics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. 
Prerequisite: MATH 119, MATH 121, MATH 122 or MATH 221.

PHYS 232 General Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to classical electricity and magnetism. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 231; Pre- or corequisite: MATH 122 or MATH 221.

Course Descriptions (BLCM)

BLCM 360 Interdisciplinary Research in Biology and Chemistry (1-3 Credits)

Experimental study of project from both a biological and chemical perspective. Three hours laboratory, 80 minutes discussion, three hours independent work. May be repeated for degree credit for a maximum of 9 credits. 
Prerequisite: by permission. 
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only.

BLCM 460 Advanced Interdisciplinary Research in Biology and Chemistry (1-3 Credits)

Continuation of experimental study of project from both a biological and chemical perspective. Includes serving as a mentor for student researchers and writing a grant proposal or thesis. Three hours laboratory, 80 minutes discussion, three hours independent work. May be repeated for degree credit for a maximum of 9 credits. 
Prerequisite: by permission. 
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only.