Spatial Studies

The Advisory Committee
Alana Belcon, Spatial Studies
Lisa Benvenuti, Center for Spatial Studies
Wes Bernardini, Sociology and Anthropology
Douglas Flewelling, Geographic Information Systems
John Glover, History
Eric Hill, Physics
Hillary Jenkins, Environmental Studies
Lillian Larsen, Religious Studies
Blodwyn McIntyre, Environmental Studies
Steven Moore, Center for Spatial Studies
Sharon Oster, English 
David Smith, Center for Spatial Studies
Nathan Strout, Center for Spatial Studies

The Field of Study 
Spatial thinking is the use of two and three-dimensional representations of information to structure problems, find answers, and express solutions. The ability to visualize and interpret location, distance, direction, relationships, movement and change through space is fundamental to content understanding and problem-solving. Spatial literacy is a critical skill in the sciences, humanities, and social sciences; indeed, a spatial approach helps to reveal the interdisciplinary, interconnected nature of many problems. Learning to think spatially is a form of learning how to learn.

The Minor
Spatial Studies is an interdisciplinary program that includes courses from a wide array of departments. Requirements include two core spatial courses and four electives chosen from a diverse range of programs at the University of Redlands. Students minoring in Spatial Studies must complete six courses totaling 22–24 credits, including the following requirements:

Two Core Courses

Two courses taken from the following, can ideally to be completed before the end of the sophomore year but can be taken at any point:

SPA 100 Foundations of Spatial Thinking (4 Credits)

Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than far things. How does this “First Law of Geography” affect you? In this class, we will study our world—from the global to the local—in spatial or geographic terms. We will become better spatial thinkers as we learn to recognize patterns and the processes that generate them.

SPA 110 Introduction to Spatial Analysis and GIS (4 Credits)

Introduction to concepts of spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS). Emphasis on spatial reasoning and analysis. Topics include the spatial data models, data requirements and acquisition, spatial analysis using GIS, implementation within an organization, and especially the application of GIS to problem-solving in other disciplines. 

SPA 210 Advanced Spatial Analysis and GIS (4 Credits)

This course is directed at developing more advanced geospatial skills in students who have already been initiated in the basic concepts of geographical information systems. Students will use advanced GIS tools as well as be introduced to raster data processing in both ArcGIS Pro and ERDAS Imagine.
Prerequisite: SPA 110. 

Four Elective Courses, taken from at least two of the following categories:
•Physical World
•Culture and Communities
•Methods and Representations

At least two of the electives must be taken at the 200-level or higher.

Physical World Elective Courses

BIOL 340 Conservation Biology (4 Credits)

Analysis of the ecology, population biology, and behavior that is needed to understand the process of extinction. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or EVST 100 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133). 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 102 Introduction to Chemistry of the Environment (4 Credits)

Introductory course for students wishing to explore the sciences or needing preparation for General Chemistry. Topics in chemistry relevant to the environment such as energy needs, pollution, and pesticides will be discussed. Three hours lecture. No background in chemistry is required. Recommended for non-science majors. 
Numeric grade only.

CHEM 290 Mile High Chemistry: Field Experience in Environmental Chemistry (3 Credits)

This course explores topics in environmental chemistry such nutrient balance, soil chemistry, and air and water quality. There is a strong emphasis placed on field and laboratory techniques. This is a May Term travel course. Course includes additional fees. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 131 or CHEM 102.
Recommended: CHEM 132.

CHEM 312 Advanced Environmental Chemistry (4 Credits)

This course investigates environmental chemistry of local air, water, and soil systems, combined with mapping so that spatial trends can be observed. Global issues are also considered, allowing this knowledge base to be applied in multiple settings. Laboratory and fieldwork heavily based on EPA methods of sampling and chemical analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232, by permission only. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 311 Environmental Chemistry Field Experience: Environmental Modeling (3 Credits)

Environmental Chemistry Field Experience and Modeling takes place at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL). This course deepens understanding of natural systems, including chemical analysis of lakes, soils, and atmosphere; there is a GIS and mapping component. The final project consists of a comprehensive model of the study site.

CHEM 311 Environmental Chemistry Field Experience and Modeling (3 Credits)

Environmental Chemistry Field Experience and Modeling takes place at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL). This course deepens understanding of natural systems, including chemical analysis of lakes, soils, and atmosphere; there is a GIS and mapping component. The final project consists of a comprehensive model of the study site. 
Prerequisite: permission of instructor required.

EVST 205 Great Environmental Disasters (4 Credits)

This course examines great environmental disasters that have occurred throughout geologic time. From the impact that resulted in the extinction of dinosaurs to the volcanic eruptions at Pompeii to the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, we develop an understanding of these events and their impacts from an earth science perspective.

EVST 220 Physical Geography (4 Credits)

Exploration of the physical geography of Earth by examination of lithospheric, atmospheric, hydrological, and biological processes. Laboratory includes field methods, topographic map reading, and in-depth discussion of these principles. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.

EVST 230 Biodiversity (4 Credits)

Examination of global and local biodiversity and the causes and implications of biodiversity decline. Emphasis on threatened and endangered species and human activities related to the decline of species. This course is field-trip and project intensive. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.

EVST 283 Mapping Animals (3 Credits)

Investigation of animal movements and behavior from a spatial perspective. Emphasis on using mapping tools to design conservation strategies with an understanding of species’ behavioral ecology. Course includes weekly field trips to study local species within their natural environment. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 133 or EVST 100 or permission of instructor.

EVST 250 Environmental Design Studio I (3-4 Credits)

Students work collaboratively in teams on environmental problem-solving projects. Many studios make use of GIS and other spatial analysis tools. Research concepts and tools become more complex in advanced levels of this sequence. 
Prerequisites for EVST 250: EVST 100 and EVST 110 or by permission.

EVST 350 Environmental Design Studio II (3-4 Credits)

Students work collaboratively in teams on environmental problem-solving projects. Many studios make use of GIS and other spatial analysis tools. Research concepts and tools become more complex in advanced levels of this sequence. 
Prerequisites for EVST 250: EVST 100 and EVST 110 or by permission.

EVST 290 Environmental Geology (4 Credits)

This course investigates how critical events in Earth history have shaped the landscape that we see today. Main topics include mountain building, volcanoes, faulting, glaciers, oceans and coastlines, energy resources, the geology of Southern California, and global climate change. Course includes a weekly lab/field component. 
Prerequisites: EVST 100 and MATH 101 or higher, or by permission.

EVST 305 Ecology for Environmental Scientists (4 Credits)

Exploration of environmental factors responsible for distributions of species, communities, and biomes with particular reference to human-induced changes in ecology. This is a writing-intensive course with emphasis on scientific writing and the use of the scientific method in ecological research. 
Prerequisites: EVST 100 and a WA course. 
Offered every year.

EVST 351 PanaMapping: GIS in the Jungle (3 Credits)

Nicknamed 'GIS in the Jungle', students work in Panamanian rainforest preserve to gather original empirical evidence of forest growth, carbon content, watersheds, land cover, and land cover change. They produce maps and present their data and interpretations to conservation area stakeholders. Conservation challenges in indigenous areas are also addressed.

EVST 451 PanaMapping: GIS to Conserve the Rainforest (3 Credits)

Nicknamed 'GIS in the Jungle', students work in Panamanian rainforest preserve to gather original empirical evidence of forest growth, carbon
content, watersheds, land cover, and land cover change. They produce maps and present their data and interpretations to conservation area
stakeholders. Conservation challenges in indigenous areas are also addressed.

EVST 375 Tropical Rainforests: The Amazon, the Andes & the Inca (3 Credits)

In this course, we will travel to the tropical rainforests and the cloud forests of Peru to explore the climatology, ecology, and biodiversity of this region. We will explore the ancient culture of the Inca, their empire at Machu Picchu, and the modern Peruvian cultures that now thrive in this region. 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

EVST 391 Environmental Hydrology (4 Credits)

This course examines the ways that water has shaped our planet by exploring the following topics: hydrologic cycling, spatiotemporal patterns of water distribution and scarcity, water quality and pollution, groundwater and stream flow, and the challenges surrounding water resource allocation. Course includes a weekly lab/field component with off-campus field trips. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 and MATH 101 or higher, or by permission.

EVST 392 Oceanography (4 Credits)

In this course, we will examine the oceans from four different perspectives; the geological, chemical, physical, and biological. Select course topics include California beach erosion, coral reefs and atolls, black smokers, thermohaline circulation, the El Niño Southern Oscillation, wave formation, and red tides. 
Numeric grade only.
Prerequisite: EVST 100. 
Offered as needed.

EVST 430 Advanced Geology Seminar (4 Credits)

From the cliffs of Madagascar to the glacial crevasses of the Transantarctic Mountains to the selenite crystals of Mexico, the Earth is filled with formations that inspire wonder and awe. This course explores the geologic processes that create these amazing formations. 
Prerequisite: EVST 205 or EVST 220 or EVST 290 or by permission of instructor.

PHYS 360 Topics in Physics and Astronomy (2-4 Credits)

Special topics in physics and astronomy not otherwise covered in the curriculum. Topics vary with semester and may include fluid mechanics, optics, computational physics, relativity, and solid state physics.
May be repeated for degree credit given a different topic.
Prerequisite: PHYS 231 and PHYS 233 or instructor’s permission.
Offered as needed.

Please note: PHYS 360 Topics in Physics can be taken assuming spatial content. 

Culture and Communities Elective Courses

ENGL 261 Studies in Literature (3-4 Credits)

Selected topics, themes, or authors in literary fields. May be repeated for degree credit for a maximum of 8 credits given different topics.
Offered as needed.

ENGL 334 Representing the Holocaust (4 Credits)

This course examines a range of Holocaust representations in memoirs, diaries, fiction, poetry, film, and historiography. Explores themes of bearing witness, trauma and the work of memory, fiction and history, and the contradictions between ethics and aesthetics.
Prerequisite: ENGL 201 OR ENGL 202 recommended.
Offered as needed.

HIST 215 History of Disability (4 Credits)

This course examines the history of disability since 1500. Topics include the difference between early modern and modern understandings of sickness and health; the professionalization of medicine; disability and the nation-state; disability and modern warfare; eugenics in fascist and liberal societies; and the disability rights movement. 
Offered as needed. 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only. 

HIST 327 Modern African-American History (4 Credits)

Study of African-American history from emancipation to the present. Topics include the struggle to incorporate freedmen into the American polity and market economy; the development of African-American communities; and cultural, economic, and political changes that proved most significant for 20th-century African-American history. 
Offered as needed.

HIST 376 California Indian Seminar (4 Credits)

The result of combining ethnography and history into ethnohistory presents the Native American side of Indian-White relations in California. Using GIS tools of analysis and plotting permits mapping Indian movement in the mission system, revealing their agency and growing power in coping with European and American directed social change.

MUS 347 History of Opera (4 Credits)

This is a survey course examining the development of Lyric Theatre from its beginnings in the seventeenth century to the present day. Special focus will be on the aesthetic interplay and relationship between text and music and how it affected the composer’s and singer’s art throughout the history of Lyric Theatre. Ability to read music preferred.
Offered in alternate years.

POLI 202 Statistical Analysis and Mapping of Social Science Data (4 Credits)

Principles of hypothesis development and testing, strategies for making controlled comparisons, principles of statistical inference, and tests of statistical significance. Development and testing of important research questions using such prominent data sets as the General Social Survey and the National Election Series.

POLI 227 Political Geography (3 Credits)

Exploration of the relationship between space, place, and politics in comparative American politics. Particular emphasis on the development of electoral politics at the state and local levels, with a collaborative, community-based component.

REL 125 Introduction to World Religions (4 Credits)

By studying major religious traditions of the world, students will consider how religious traditions guide the way people live their lives in an ever increasingly diverse and religiously pluralistic world. Investigations will include both historical studies and the writings of religious traditions.

REL 206 The 'Other' Jesus (4 Credits)

Study of biblical and extra-biblical recounting of the life and teachings of Jesus. Emphasis placed on reading ancient and contemporary life stories as critical resources for understanding emergent Christianity and the early Jewish/Christian world–in space and over time. 
Offered in alternate years.

REL 252 African-American Religion and Spirituality (4 Credits)

Intermediate-level lecture and discussion course, which is an examination of religious themes in African-American experience, including slavery, Black Church denominations (mainstream and Holiness), Black Nationhood and civil rights movements, Black Muslims, Black and Womanist (Black feminist) theologies, African religions in the Americas (Santeria and Voudoun), and new spiritual visions. 
Offered in alternate years.

REL 308 Christian Scriptures (4 Credits)

Through situating canonical and extracanonical texts within their Jewish and Greco-Roman frame, this course engages the complex social, cultural and historical fabrics of the writings included in Christian Scripture. Close reading, informed by critical debate, invites students to explore contemporary manifestations of ancient teaching and practice–in space and over time.

REST 330 Race in the City (4 Credits)

This class examines how race and class have been built into urban and suburban spaces in the U.S. and offers students a variety of opportunities to explore, research and map the cities we live in.

SOAN 305 Mapping People Mapping Place (4 Credits)

The structure of the places we inhabit affects how we experience the world in profound ways: how we move around, how we interact with other people, even the way we conceptualize the world. We’ll use geographic information systems (GIS) to explore the “science of space.” 
Prerequisites: SOAN 100, or SOAN 102, or SOAN 104; plus two SOAN courses at the 200 level; or by permission.

Methods and Representations Elective Courses

SPA 210 Advanced Spatial Analysis and GIS (4 Credits)

This course is directed at developing more advanced geospatial skills in students who have already been initiated in the basic concepts of geographical information systems. Students will use advanced GIS tools as well as be introduced to raster data processing in both ArcGIS Pro and ERDAS Imagine.
Prerequisite: SPA 110. 

SPA 230 GIS Field Methods (3 Credits)

This course focuses on developing the technical skills used for GIS data collection and analysis in the field. Each week we will go out into the field and learn field techniques, such as drones, ArcGIS apps, GPS units, etc. 
Prerequisite: SPA 110.
Offered as needed. 
Course fee applies.  

SPA 260 Topics: Spatial Thinking (2 Credits)

Topics of current interest in Geographic Information Sciences, Spatial Thinking, and Applied Spatial Analysis. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Offered as needed. 

SPA 360 Advanced Topics in Spatial Thinking & GIS (2 Credits)

Advanced topics in Geographic Information Science, Spatial Thinking, and Applied Spatial Analysis. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Offered as needed. 

SPA 425 Remote Sensing Image Analysis (4 Credits)

This course discusses the theoretical foundation of remote sensing and applied skills in image understanding and image interpretation that students can apply in their respective disciplines. Utilizing image analysis software, students work on a progression of tasks and assignments focusing on image data format, image display, image data collection, and image analysis and classification. 
Prerequisites: MATH 118 and 119 or higher or permission of instructor. 

ART 132 2-D Design (4 Credits)

Students are acquainted with the structure that artists consider when creating two-dimensional images. The elements of pictorial composition (line, shape, space, color, value, and texture) are used in concert with the principles (unity/variety, balance/ emphasis/ rhythm, and proportion/scale) to create effective images. 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only.

ART 145 Introduction to Sculpture (4 Credits)

Introduction to materials, techniques, concepts, and tools of sculpture. Techniques covered may include modeling, carving, construction, and mold making.

ART 252 Introduction to Graphic Design (4 Credits)

Introduction to technical and conceptual principles of graphic design. Students will investigate different creative approaches to the design process. Topics include text/image relationships, illustration techniques, basic type concerns, logo/identity, concept presentation, and developing competency with Adobe Illustrator.

MATH 221 Calculus III (4 Credits)

Topics in multivariable calculus related to differentiation and integration. Sequences, series, and Taylor approximations. 
Prerequisite: MATH 122 or by permission.

MATH 222 Calculus IV, Vector Calculus (3 Credits)

Investigation of vector calculus with an emphasis on applications in physics. Parametrized curves and surfaces; vector fields; line integrals and Green’s Theorem; flux integrals; divergence and curl; the Divergence Theorem and Stokes’s Theorem. 
Prerequisite: MATH 221. 
Offered as needed.

MATH 231 Introduction to Modeling (4 Credits)

Investigation of the process of modeling. Special emphasis placed on how to build, test, and refine models; how to analyze assumptions and results; and defining model limitations. Deterministic and stochastic models, rate equations and population dynamics, and statistical analysis. Final project tied to outside interests. 
Prerequisite: MATH 119 or MATH 121 or MATH 122 or MATH 221 or by permission.
Cross-listed with EVST.

MATH 241 Linear Algebra (4 Credits)

Study of vector spaces. Topics include systems of linear equations, matrices, the geometry of vectors, vector spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, determinants, and selected applications. 
Prerequisite: MATH 221.

MATH 251 College Geometry (4 Credits)

A modern approach to classical geometries such as Euclidean, non-Euclidean, and projective. Sets, logic, and synthetic and analytic proof techniques in geometry are studied. 
Prerequisite: MATH 201 or 204. 
Recommended: MATH 241 strongly recommended. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHYS 232 General Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to classical electricity and magnetism. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 231; Pre- or corequisite: MATH 122 or MATH 221.

PHYS 332 Electricity and Magnetism (4 Credits)

Development and application of Maxwell’s equations describing electromagnetic fields. Topics include boundary value problems, and dielectric and magnetic materials. 
Prerequisites: PHYS 232 and MATH 235. 
Offered in alternate years.

Negotiable Electives 
Appropriate additional courses from a variety of departments may be counted toward the SPA minor. To be eligible, a course must include significant attention to spatial studies in an explicit, rather than implicit, fashion. Students should discuss the potential of a course counting toward the minor with the instructor as early as possible (ideally, before the course has begun) and negotiate special assignments or projects in consultation with the instructor and the Spatial Studies Advisory Committee. Negotiable courses must be approved by the Advisory Committee for credit toward the minor.

Student Portfolios
Students will submit a portfolio of coursework featuring spatial analysis in the spring semester of their senior year. The portfolio will be evaluated by members of the Spatial Studies Advisory Committee.

Course Descriptions (SPA)

SPA 100 Foundations of Spatial Thinking (4 Credits)

Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than far things. How does this “First Law of Geography” affect you? In this class, we will study our world—from the global to the local—in spatial or geographic terms. We will become better spatial thinkers as we learn to recognize patterns and the processes that generate them.

SPA 110 Introduction to Spatial Analysis and GIS (4 Credits)

Introduction to concepts of spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS). Emphasis on spatial reasoning and analysis. Topics include the spatial data models, data requirements and acquisition, spatial analysis using GIS, implementation within an organization, and especially the application of GIS to problem-solving in other disciplines. 

SPA 210 Advanced Spatial Analysis and GIS (4 Credits)

This course is directed at developing more advanced geospatial skills in students who have already been initiated in the basic concepts of geographical information systems. Students will use advanced GIS tools as well as be introduced to raster data processing in both ArcGIS Pro and ERDAS Imagine.
Prerequisite: SPA 110. 

SPA 230 GIS Field Methods (3 Credits)

This course focuses on developing the technical skills used for GIS data collection and analysis in the field. Each week we will go out into the field and learn field techniques, such as drones, ArcGIS apps, GPS units, etc. 
Prerequisite: SPA 110.
Offered as needed. 
Course fee applies.  

SPA 260 Topics: Spatial Thinking (2 Credits)

Topics of current interest in Geographic Information Sciences, Spatial Thinking, and Applied Spatial Analysis. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Offered as needed. 

SPA 350 Geo-Design Studio (4 Credits)

This course is an introduction to Geodesign techniques and system thinking strategies for planning and designing at different geographical scales. 
Prerequisites: SPA 110.
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only. 

SPA 360 Advanced Topics in Spatial Thinking & GIS (2 Credits)

Advanced topics in Geographic Information Science, Spatial Thinking, and Applied Spatial Analysis. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Offered as needed. 

SPA 425 Remote Sensing Image Analysis (4 Credits)

This course discusses the theoretical foundation of remote sensing and applied skills in image understanding and image interpretation that students can apply in their respective disciplines. Utilizing image analysis software, students work on a progression of tasks and assignments focusing on image data format, image display, image data collection, and image analysis and classification. 
Prerequisites: MATH 118 and 119 or higher or permission of instructor.