Public Policy 

The Director
Greg Thorson

The Advisory Committee
Graeme Auton, Political Science
Pani Chakrapani, Computer Science
Douglas Flewelling, Geographic Information Systems
Lawrence Gross, Race and Ethnic Studies
Monty Hempel, Environmental Studies
Dorene Isenberg, Economics
Steven Morics, Mathematics
Jennifer Nelson, Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies
Jennifer Tilton, Race and Ethnic Studies
Renee Van Vechten, Political Science
John Walsh, Religious Studies
Mara Winick, Business Administration 

The Major
The Public Policy major draws its theoretical foundations from a variety of disciplines including political science, economics, and sociology. Majors are trained both in the ethics of public policy making as well as in the diverse methodologies used in the field. Because public policy is an applied field, majors take a variety of applied courses in such diverse areas as environmental studies, race and ethnic studies, women, gender, and sexuality studies, political science, economics, and sociology. Students develop a concentration that allows them to develop substantial expertise in an area of public policy analysis. A minimum of 44 credits is required for completion of the major.

Bachelor of Arts

Required Courses: 

Core Course in Public Policy Analysis

PLCY 100 Introduction to Public Policy Analysis (4 Credits)

Introduction to both the theoretical foundations and processes of public policy-making. Case studies of educational policy, health care policy, economic policy, and/or tax policies.

Foundations of Public Policy Analysis

Please note: students may choose either ECON 100 or ECON 101.

ECON 100 Economics and Society (4 Credits)

The course provides an analytical, non-technical introduction to the study of socioeconomic issues from a variety of political and economic perspectives. It explores the structure of fundamental dynamics of a market economy, interactions between individuals, markets, and government institutions, economic aspects of social issues, and moral dimensions of economic processes.

ECON 101 Principles of Economics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of economic systems from a micro and macro perspective. The course includes economic principles underlying the process of consumption, production, and distribution in a market-oriented economy (microeconomics), and the structure, operation, measures, and major theoretical models of the whole economy (macroeconomics).

POLI 111 Introduction to American Politics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the dynamics of government and politics in the United States and analysis of major contemporary public policy problems.

Ethics (minimum 1 course)

PHIL 110 Contemporary Moral Issues (4 Credits)

Examination of competing ethical and social-political theories in the context of current ethical controversies.

PHIL 221 Ethical Theory (4 Credits)

Examination of the nature and status of ethical value through historical and contemporary writings. Addresses philosophical arguments defending the objectivity and rationality of ethical principles in light of the challenges presented by individual psychology and cultural difference.

PHIL 320 Ethics and Law (4 Credits)

Study of selected problems concerning law, society, and morality. Topics include legal paternalism, legal moralism, the ethics of criminal punishment, political obligation, civil disobedience, and justification of the state. Readings from classical and contemporary sources.  
Prerequisite: one course in philosophy, POLI 212, POLI 214, or by permission. 
Offered in alternate years.

REL 120 Religion and Ethics (4 Credits)

Exploration of religious ethics in relation to contemporary issues in politics, medicine, biology, and law.

REL 122 Religion and Ecology: Environmental Ethics (4 Credits)

Consideration of the environmental crisis from a religious perspective, and a search to understand why ecology is a problematic concern within religion. Evaluation of theological, philosophical, and sociological factors that shape the various religious responses to ecological concerns.

BUS 434 Applied Business Ethics (4 Credits)

Exploration of applied ethics in the business environment. Students will be introduced to the formal study of business ethics and then apply that knowledge to a variety of historical and contemporary case studies. 
Prerequisites: BUS 310 and senior standing.

Methods (minimum 1 course)

POLI 202 Statistical Analysis and Mapping of Social Science Data (4 Credits)

Principles of hypothesis development and testing, strategies for making controlled comparisons, principles of statistical inference, and tests of statistical significance. Development and testing of important research questions using such prominent data sets as the General Social Survey and the National Election Series.

ECON 400 Introduction to Econometrics (4 Credits)

Application of descriptive and inferential statistics to the measurement and testing of various economic models. Diagnosis and correction of various problems with empirical research: specification errors, multicollinearity, heteroskedasticity, serial correlation, and simultaneity. Statistical software used to implement estimation techniques. 
Prerequisites: ECON 350, MATH 111 or POLI 202 or by permission. 

EVST 110 Introduction to Spatial Analysis and GI (4 Credits)

Introduction to concepts of spatial analysis and to geographic information systems (GIS). Emphasis on spatial reasoning and analysis. Topics include spatial data models; data requirements and acquisition; spatial analysis using GIS; implementation within an organization; and especially, the application of GIS to problem-solving in other disciplines. Two lectures and two laboratories. Not open to students who have received credit for SPA 110.
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.

SPA 110 Introduction to Spatial Analysis and GIS (4 Credits)

Introduction to concepts of spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS). Emphasis on spatial reasoning and analysis. Topics include the spatial data models, data requirements and acquisition, spatial analysis using GIS, implementation within an organization, and especially the application of GIS to problem-solving in other disciplines. 

EVST 399 Research Methods & Design (4 Credits)

A survey course of qualitative and quantitative research methods used by environmental scientists. We will learn techniques from both social and natural sciences. A research proposal that can double as the EVST capstone proposal will be an end-goal of the course. Students from outside EVST can apply to join. Numeric grade only.
Prerequisite: EVST 250. 

POLI 200 The Study of Politics (4 Credits)

Overview of approaches to the study of politics. Students develop skills necessary to read, assess, and produce works of social science. Coursework involves analytic reviews of monographs and articles, production of literature reviews, and the development of an independent research proposal.

MATH 111 Elementary Statistics with Applications (4 Credits)

Descriptive and inferential statistics for students from diverse fields. Distribution, correlation, probability, hypothesis testing, use of tables, and examination of the misuse of statistics and relation of statistics to vital aspects of life. Computer packages used as tools throughout the course.

PSYC 250 Statistical Methods (4 Credits)

Introduction to the use of descriptive and inferential statistics in the collection of data and the interpretation of research in psychology and education. 
Prerequisite: PSYC 100 or by permission.

SOAN 300 Research Methods and Design (4 Credits)

Critical analysis of research methodology involving both quantitative and qualitative approaches to the collection of data. Practical experience in data collection and analysis accompanies discussion of ethical issues.
Prerequisites: SOAN 100, or SOAN 102, or SOAN 104; and junior standing plus two SOAN courses at the 200 level or above; or by permission.

WGS 330 Feminist Research Methods (4 Credits)

Students learn how feminist scholars rethink analytic paradigms and create new theoretical models to guide their work. Examination of how knowledge is constructed and deployed, how interdisciplinary feminist perspectives inform research methods, what the practical implications are of those methods, and how feminist analysis redefines traditional categories and disciplinary concepts. 
Numeric grade only.
Prerequisite: sophomore status or above. 
Offered in alternate years. 

Public Policy Concentration (Minimum: 4–5 Courses)

Majors shall develop a public policy concentration in consultation with the advisor. The concentration shall reflect substantial depth in a single area of public policy analysis. Concentrations must consist of a minimum of three courses with at least two courses at the 200 level or higher.

A program contract must be completed detailing the specific courses required for the completion of the public policy concentration. The program contract shall be signed by both the student and the Program Director. Contracts will be kept on file in the Program Office and in the Registrar’s Office. All public policy concentrations must be approved by the Director. Samples of previously approved concentrations can be found in the Program Office.

Approved concentrations have been developed in the following areas:
• Health, Education and Welfare Policy
•Environmental Policy
•Economic Policy
•Political Science and Public Policy
•Public Finance
•Immigration and Civil Rights Policy
•Law and Public Policy
•National Security Policy
•Women, Gender, and Sexuality Policy
•Methods in Public Policy
•Students are encouraged to develop and propose other concentrations as well.

Internship Requirement

In order to meet the major requirements, the Public Policy Internship must have a University of Redlands faculty sponsor and be approved by the Director.

PLCY 381 Public Policy Internship (0-4 Credits)

Internship in Public Policy.

Elective: Directed Study (2-4)
Students can choose between the following Directed Study courses: PLCY 170, PLCY 270, PLCY 370, PLCY 470

Elective: Internship (0-4)
Students can choose between the following Internship courses: PLCY 180, PLCY 280, PLCY 380, PLCY 480

Capstone Experience Requirement Options

Single Majors

Public Policy majors who do not major in any other field (i.e. single majors) may either a) complete:

PLCY 495 Public Policy Capstone (4 Credits)

Students complete an integrated writing project in Public Policy within their chosen area of concentration.
Prerequisite: PLCY 209 and senior standing.

POLI 456 Education Policy (4 Credits)

Examination of the history and evolution of federal and state education policy. Review of research conducted by leading scholars, think tanks, and non-partisan government organizations on the effectiveness of education policy.
Prerequisite: PLCY 100 or POI 111, and POLI 202. 
Offered in alternate years.

POLI 457 Health Care Policy (4 Credits)

Examination of the U.S. health care system, including the evolution and impact of Medicare, Medicaid, and the SCHIP programs. Comparison of effectiveness of the U.S. healthcare system with other systems around the world. Examination of recent attempts to reform the U.S. health care system and their likely impacts. 
Prerequisite: PLCY 100 or POLI 111, and POLI 202. 
Offered in alternate years.

Or

b) complete a capstone in their primary substantive field of study:

POLI 495 Political Science Capstone (4 Credits)

Four-credit guided research seminar for graduating seniors. Students will produce and present individual research projects with a common theme. Work must reflect best practices and mastery of the Department's learning outcomes required for major; students must pass to graduate.

ECON 465 Senior Seminar in Economics (4 Credits)

Independent student research on one or more economic problems. Discussion, debate, and critical analysis of a variety of topics in a seminar setting. Open to majors only. 
Prerequisites: six courses in economics, including ECON 350 and ECON 351 or by permission.

EVST 475 Capstone Senior Project in Environmental Studies (2-4 Credits)

Students complete a substantial project either as part of a group or individually. The work usually extends over two semesters. 
Numeric grade only.

REST 402 Senior Capstone II: Project Implementation (2-4 Credits)

The second of a two-semester capstone experience. During this semester, students will complete the capstone project that was designed in REST 401. Students are also expected to prepare a presentation of their work. 
Prerequisite: REST 120 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

WGS 459 Senior Seminar (4 Credits)

Students synthesize and reflect on their interdisciplinary Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies learning. All students design and develop a research paper or project. Those who are Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies majors do so in consultation with their advisor and plan for a Directed Study to complete their paper or project in spring. 
Prerequisites: WGS 150, two 200-level courses (WGS or Cross-listed), one 300- or 400-level course (WGS or Cross-listed), and senior standing, or by permission.

Other capstones are welcome but must be approved by the Director. 

Double majors
Public Policy majors who also major in another field (i.e. double majors) may either:
a) complete two separate capstone experiences; one in Public Policy (PLCY 495, POLI 456, or POLI 457), and one in the second major (e.g. POLI 495, ECON 465, EVST 475, REST 402, WGS 459, or other capstone experience approved by the Director)
Or
b) write a share capstone that integrates the student’s learning outcomes in both majors.

Regardless of which option is selected, the capstone must focus on a public policy issue and address all of the Public Policy major learning outcomes described in this chapter.

The Minor
Completion of the minor in Public Policy requires a minimum of 24 credits in the following policy-related courses:

Core Course in Public Policy Analysis

PLCY 100 Introduction to Public Policy Analysis (4 Credits)

Introduction to both the theoretical foundations and processes of public policy-making. Case studies of educational policy, health care policy, economic policy, and/or tax policies.

Foundations of Public Policy Analysis

Please note: students may choose either ECON 100 or ECON 101.

ECON 100 Economics and Society (4 Credits)

The course provides an analytical, non-technical introduction to the study of socioeconomic issues from a variety of political and economic perspectives. It explores the structure of fundamental dynamics of a market economy, interactions between individuals, markets, and government institutions, economic aspects of social issues, and moral dimensions of economic processes.

ECON 101 Principles of Economics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of economic systems from a micro and macro perspective. The course includes economic principles underlying the process of consumption, production, and distribution in a market-oriented economy (microeconomics), and the structure, operation, measures, and major theoretical models of the whole economy (macroeconomics).

POLI 111 Introduction to American Politics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the dynamics of government and politics in the United States and analysis of major contemporary public policy problems.

Methods (1 course/4 credits)

 

POLI 202 Statistical Analysis and Mapping of Social Science Data (4 Credits)

Principles of hypothesis development and testing, strategies for making controlled comparisons, principles of statistical inference, and tests of statistical significance. Development and testing of important research questions using such prominent data sets as the General Social Survey and the National Election Series.

ECON 400 Introduction to Econometrics (4 Credits)

Application of descriptive and inferential statistics to the measurement and testing of various economic models. Diagnosis and correction of various problems with empirical research: specification errors, multicollinearity, heteroskedasticity, serial correlation, and simultaneity. Statistical software used to implement estimation techniques. 
Prerequisites: ECON 350, MATH 111 or POLI 202 or by permission. 

EVST 110 Introduction to Spatial Analysis and GI (4 Credits)

Introduction to concepts of spatial analysis and to geographic information systems (GIS). Emphasis on spatial reasoning and analysis. Topics include spatial data models; data requirements and acquisition; spatial analysis using GIS; implementation within an organization; and especially, the application of GIS to problem-solving in other disciplines. Two lectures and two laboratories. Not open to students who have received credit for SPA 110.
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.

POLI 200 The Study of Politics (4 Credits)

Overview of approaches to the study of politics. Students develop skills necessary to read, assess, and produce works of social science. Coursework involves analytic reviews of monographs and articles, production of literature reviews, and the development of an independent research proposal.

MATH 111 Elementary Statistics with Applications (4 Credits)

Descriptive and inferential statistics for students from diverse fields. Distribution, correlation, probability, hypothesis testing, use of tables, and examination of the misuse of statistics and relation of statistics to vital aspects of life. Computer packages used as tools throughout the course.

PSYC 250 Statistical Methods (4 Credits)

Introduction to the use of descriptive and inferential statistics in the collection of data and the interpretation of research in psychology and education. 
Prerequisite: PSYC 100 or by permission.

SOAN 300 Research Methods and Design (4 Credits)

Critical analysis of research methodology involving both quantitative and qualitative approaches to the collection of data. Practical experience in data collection and analysis accompanies discussion of ethical issues.
Prerequisites: SOAN 100, or SOAN 102, or SOAN 104; and junior standing plus two SOAN courses at the 200 level or above; or by permission.

WGS 330 Feminist Research Methods (4 Credits)

Students learn how feminist scholars rethink analytic paradigms and create new theoretical models to guide their work. Examination of how knowledge is constructed and deployed, how interdisciplinary feminist perspectives inform research methods, what the practical implications are of those methods, and how feminist analysis redefines traditional categories and disciplinary concepts. 
Numeric grade only.
Prerequisite: sophomore status or above. 
Offered in alternate years. 

Applied Public Policy (2 courses/8 credits)
Students must take two approved Public Policy courses.

Advanced Placement
Students receiving scores of four or above on an Advanced Placement American Government exam will be given credit for POLI 111. Students who receive a score of four or higher in macroeconomics and microeconomics exams receive 4 credits for ECON 101 Principles of Economics.

Departmental Honors
Students may apply for departmental honors in the fall of the senior year. Students must have a minimum 3.5 GPA in the major to apply. To successfully complete the honors requirements, students must successfully defend an Honors Thesis in Public Policy. The defense committee shall be composed of at least two faculty members, one of whom shall be an advisory member in the Public Policy program.

Public Policy Major Learning Outcomes
Graduates of this program will be prepared to:
1. Demonstrate mastery of knowledge about public policy issues and approaches by summarizing and evaluating existing literature in the field.
2. Apply a range of relevant theories, concepts, and approaches taken from the social sciences, humanities, natural sciences, and ethics to the critical analysis of public policy problems.
3. Demonstrate knowledge about the feasibility of solving complex social problems within the context of existing political and economic institutions and processes.
4. Use appropriate quantitative and/or qualitative methods to systematically analyze public policy issues. 
5. Communicate knowledge effectively through verbal and written forms.

Course Descriptions (PLCY)

PLCY 100 Introduction to Public Policy Analysis (4 Credits)

Introduction to both the theoretical foundations and processes of public policy-making. Case studies of educational policy, health care policy, economic policy, and/or tax policies.

PLCY 381 Public Policy Internship (0-4 Credits)

Internship in Public Policy.

PLCY 495 Public Policy Capstone (4 Credits)

Students complete an integrated writing project in Public Policy within their chosen area of concentration.
Prerequisite: PLCY 209 and senior standing.