Philosophy

The Faculty
Lawrence Finsen
Kathie Jenni
Xinyan Jiang
James Krueger

The Major
The major in philosophy is organized around several key subjects. Philosophical Conversations introduces the historical development of philosophical ideas within different traditions. Value and Action covers philosophical theories of value and how values influence action. Nature and Knowledge examines different philosophical perspectives on the nature of reality and of knowledge. Logic introduces formal systems of reasoning.

Learning outcomes for this program may be found at www.redlands.edu/BA-PHIL/learning-outcomes.

Bachelor of Arts

Philosophy Major Requirements 
The major in philosophy consists of eleven courses in philosophy, or ten courses in philosophy and one (only) of the following courses: POLI 212 Classical Political Thought or POLI 214 Modern Political Thought. Students majoring in philosophy must also complete the following requirements:

Philosophical Conversations (2 courses/8 credits)

Historical Foundations of Western Philosophy

Take one of the following: 

PHIL 200 Greek Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of original texts in Greek philosophy selected from the pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics. Students are acquainted with philosophers who began the Western intellectual tradition. 
Offered as needed.

PHIL 205 Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of the works of major philosophers selected from the modern period (1600–1780). Readings selected from writings of Bacon, Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Leibniz, Spinoza, Berkeley, and Hume. 
Offered as needed.

Non-Western Philosophy

Take one of the following: 

PHIL 301 Chinese Buddhism (4 Credits)

Study of Chinese Buddhist philosophy. The main focus is on the school known as Chan (pronounced “Zen” in Japanese), but other Chinese Buddhist schools such as the Three Treatises, Consciousness-Only, Tiantai, Huayan, and Pure Land will be discussed as well.
Offered every third year.

PHIL 302 Daoism (4 Credits)

Study of Daoist (Taoist) philosophy. Classical Daoist texts such as Daode Jing (Tao Te Ching) and Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu), as well as Neo-Daoist commentaries and contemporary interpretations of Daoist classics. 
Offered every third year.

PHIL 303 Confucianism (4 Credits)

Study of classical Confucianism. Readings include Confucian classics such as Confucius’ Analects, The Book of Mencius, and Xunzi (Hsün Tzu), as well as contemporary interpretations of classical Confucianism. 
Offered every third year.

Value and Action (2 courses/7–8 credits)
All courses numbered 210–229 and 310–329 count toward this requirement.

Nature and Knowledge (2 courses/7–8 credits)
All courses numbered 230–249 and 330–339 count toward this requirement.

Logic (1 course/4 credits)

PHIL 350 Symbolic Logic (2-4 Credits)

Study of increasingly complex systems of deductive logic. Topics include sentential logic and predicate logic. 
Prerequisite: either one course in philosophy, or by permission.
Offered in alternate years.

Capstone (1 course/4 credits)

Please note: Capstone must be completed during the senior year. 

PHIL 460 Advanced Seminar in Philosophy (4 Credits)

An advanced and in-depth examination of a particular topic, movement or figure in philosophy that requires the completion of a major writing assignment. Topics vary. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Prerequisite: junior or senior standing and PHIL 200 or PHIL 220, or by permission.

Electives (3 courses/11-12 credits)

Please note: an appropriate topics course can count towards satisfying the Philosophical Conversation, Value and Action, or Nature and Knowledge requirements, with Chair approval. A minimum of 19 credits must be completed at the 300-level or above.

PHIL 260 Topics in Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of selected topics, movements, authors, or works in philosophy, chosen to reflect student and instructor interest.

PHIL 360 Advanced Topics in Philosophy (3-4 Credits)

Advanced study of selected topics, movements, authors, or works in philosophy chosen to reflect student interest and instructor availability. May be repeated for degree credit, for a maximum of 12 credits, given a different topic.
Prerequisite: one philosophy course or by permission.

PHIL 460 Advanced Seminar in Philosophy (4 Credits)

An advanced and in-depth examination of a particular topic, movement or figure in philosophy that requires the completion of a major writing assignment. Topics vary. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Prerequisite: junior or senior standing and PHIL 200 or PHIL 220, or by permission.

The Capstone Experience 
The capstone requirement is fulfilled by completing a major writing assignment in an Advanced Seminar (PHIL 460) during a student’s senior year. All seniors should enroll in PHIL 460 during the fall semester.

The Minor 
The minor in philosophy consists of six courses, meeting the following requirements:

Philosophical Conversations (2 courses/8 credits)

The Western Philosophical Tradition

Take one of the following:

PHIL 200 Greek Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of original texts in Greek philosophy selected from the pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics. Students are acquainted with philosophers who began the Western intellectual tradition. 
Offered as needed.

PHIL 205 Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of the works of major philosophers selected from the modern period (1600–1780). Readings selected from writings of Bacon, Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Leibniz, Spinoza, Berkeley, and Hume. 
Offered as needed.

Non-Western Philosophical Traditions

Take one of the following: 

PHIL 102 Introduction to Chinese Philosophy (4 Credits)

An introduction to Chinese philosophy. Readings selected mainly from Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist traditions. No prior acquaintance with Chinese literature or philosophy will be presupposed.

PHIL 301 Chinese Buddhism (4 Credits)

Study of Chinese Buddhist philosophy. The main focus is on the school known as Chan (pronounced “Zen” in Japanese), but other Chinese Buddhist schools such as the Three Treatises, Consciousness-Only, Tiantai, Huayan, and Pure Land will be discussed as well.
Offered every third year.

PHIL 302 Daoism (4 Credits)

Study of Daoist (Taoist) philosophy. Classical Daoist texts such as Daode Jing (Tao Te Ching) and Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu), as well as Neo-Daoist commentaries and contemporary interpretations of Daoist classics. 
Offered every third year.

PHIL 303 Confucianism (4 Credits)

Study of classical Confucianism. Readings include Confucian classics such as Confucius’ Analects, The Book of Mencius, and Xunzi (Hsün Tzu), as well as contemporary interpretations of classical Confucianism. 
Offered every third year.

Value and Action (1 course/3–4 credits)
All courses numbered 210–229 and 310–329 count toward this requirement.

Nature and Knowledge (1 course/3-4 credits)
All courses numbered 230–249 and 330–339 count toward this requirement.

Electives (2 courses/7–8 credits)
An appropriate PHIL 260, PHIL 360, or PHIL 460 course can count towards satisfying the Philosophical Conversation, Value and Action, or Nature and Knowledge requirements with Chair approval.

Minor Capstone
A capstone experience that either:
a. integrates a philosophical component into the student’s major capstone project (with the agreement of both the Philosophy department and the major department),
b. consists of an appropriate advanced (300- or 400-level) course which includes a major writing project (course and project to be approved by the department as fulfilling the capstone).

Students electing to minor in Philosophy should consult an advisor in the department and are encouraged to explore ways to integrate the minor with their major.

Departmental Honors
Students with a GPA of 3.5 or above in philosophy are eligible to apply to seek honors during the fall semester of their senior year. The application includes a proposal for a thesis project. If the application is approved, a thesis committee will be formed and a writing schedule devised. The committee may revoke thesis approval at any time if adequate progress towards completion is not made. Students should consult with their advisor concerning application requirements and deadlines.

Study Abroad
Philosophy majors and minors are strongly encouraged to include study abroad in their academic planning. The opportunity to develop deeper understanding of another culture is of immense value to any liberally educated person, and of particular value to philosophy students. A number of programs are available that would be especially beneficial to someone studying philosophy, including programs in English and other languages. Students should plan off-campus study early in consultation with both their department advisor and the Study Abroad Office.

Course Descriptions (PHIL)

PHIL 100 Introduction to Philosophy (4 Credits)

Introduction to substantive issues in philosophy through examination of historical and contemporary sources. Designed to provide a survey of topics in various areas, including ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology.

PHIL 102 Introduction to Chinese Philosophy (4 Credits)

An introduction to Chinese philosophy. Readings selected mainly from Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist traditions. No prior acquaintance with Chinese literature or philosophy will be presupposed.

PHIL 110 Contemporary Moral Issues (4 Credits)

Examination of competing ethical and social-political theories in the context of current ethical controversies.

PHIL 111 Crime and Punishment (4 Credits)

An introduction to philosophy via an examination of philosophical issues surrounding crime and punishment. Topics include the Free Will-Determinism problem, theories of ethics and justice, the justification of punishment, and the morality of capital punishment.

PHIL 121 Animal Ethics and Service (3 Credits)

An animal ethics course combined with hands-on work at local animal rescues. A course-fee of $150 applies; instructor permission is required.
Credit and Evaluation grade only.

PHIL 122 Global Medical Ethics (3 Credits)

Service course focusing on public health challenges in the developing world, in particular, the continuing HIV pandemic in southern Africa. One week of coursework on campus lays the foundation for three weeks of service work in the Kingdom of Swaziland. 
Credit/no credit and Evaluation grade only.

PHIL 151 Reasoning and Logic (4 Credits)

Practical introduction to logic and critical thinking, with emphasis on developing the ability to detect fallacious arguments and construct sound ones in a variety of practical contexts.

PHIL 160 Introductory Topics in Philosophy (3-4 Credits)

Study of selected topics, movements, authors, or works in philosophy chosen to reflect student interest and instructor availability. May be repeated for degree credit, given different topics, for a maximum of 8 credits. 
Offered as needed.

PHIL 200 Greek Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of original texts in Greek philosophy selected from the pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics. Students are acquainted with philosophers who began the Western intellectual tradition. 
Offered as needed.

PHIL 205 Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of the works of major philosophers selected from the modern period (1600–1780). Readings selected from writings of Bacon, Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Leibniz, Spinoza, Berkeley, and Hume. 
Offered as needed.

PHIL 211 Environmental Ethics (4 Credits)

Examination of ethical issues about the environment: foundational questions about moral status, public policy issues, and questions of personal morality. Traditional perspectives such as anthropocentrism and individualism are contrasted with alternatives such as the Land Ethic and ecofeminism. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 212 Humans and Other Animals (4 Credits)

Study of relations between humans and other animals, both empirical and ethical. Topics include the nature of animal minds, theories of animal ethics, animals as food, animal experimentation, hunting and fishing, zoos and aquariums. Films, guest speakers, and readings from classical and contemporary sources. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 213 Animal Ethics and Policy (4 Credits)

Study of animal ethics and the evolution of animal welfare policy since the Animal Welfare Act of 1966. Examines in substantial depth competing moral arguments and related policy developments in the arenas of companion animal treatment, farmed animal welfare, animal research, and broader theories. Numeric and Evaluation grade only.
Offered as needed.

PHIL 215 Bioethics: Doctors and Patients (4 Credits)

Examination of the ethical issues that arise within the relationship between doctors and patients. Topics include paternalism, autonomy, confidentiality, informed consent, and the conflicts that can arise in medical research. 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 216 Bioethics: Technology and Justice (4 Credits)

Examination of the ethical issues that arise from the distribution of health resources and the nature of particular procedures and technologies. Topics include fairness in rationing health resources, genetic screening, abortion, and end of life care. 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 221 Ethical Theory (4 Credits)

Examination of the nature and status of ethical value through historical and contemporary writings. Addresses philosophical arguments defending the objectivity and rationality of ethical principles in light of the challenges presented by individual psychology and cultural difference.

PHIL 231 Philosophy, Science, and Medicine (4 Credits)

Examination of basic issues in the philosophy of science as they apply to medicine. Topics include the nature of scientific evidence, explanation, causation, and causal inference. Examples will be drawn from epidemiology and the claims made by advocates for Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 232 Biology, Health, and Disease (4 Credits)

Examination of basic issues in the philosophy of biology through the lens of the concepts of health and disease. Addresses evolutionary theory and the nature of biological functions by examining evolutionary and functional accounts of health and disease. It also examines genetic explanations by exploring the nature of genetic disease. 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 260 Topics in Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of selected topics, movements, authors, or works in philosophy, chosen to reflect student and instructor interest.

PHIL 301 Chinese Buddhism (4 Credits)

Study of Chinese Buddhist philosophy. The main focus is on the school known as Chan (pronounced “Zen” in Japanese), but other Chinese Buddhist schools such as the Three Treatises, Consciousness-Only, Tiantai, Huayan, and Pure Land will be discussed as well.
Offered every third year.

PHIL 302 Daoism (4 Credits)

Study of Daoist (Taoist) philosophy. Classical Daoist texts such as Daode Jing (Tao Te Ching) and Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu), as well as Neo-Daoist commentaries and contemporary interpretations of Daoist classics. 
Offered every third year.

PHIL 303 Confucianism (4 Credits)

Study of classical Confucianism. Readings include Confucian classics such as Confucius’ Analects, The Book of Mencius, and Xunzi (Hsün Tzu), as well as contemporary interpretations of classical Confucianism. 
Offered every third year.

PHIL 310 Philosophy of Sex and Gender (4 Credits)

Examination of conceptual and moral issues surrounding sexual equality: sexism and its relation to other forms of oppression; the notion of male and female natures; friendship, love, marriage, and the family; moral analyses of rape, abortion, and pornography. Classical and contemporary readings from philosophy, the social sciences, and political documents.
Prerequisite: one philosophy course or by permission.
Offered as needed.

PHIL 313 Moral Psychology (4 Credits)

Examination of selected issues in moral psychology, the philosophical study of the psychic capacities involved in moral life. Topics have included moral perception, moral imagination, the nature of emotions, the scope of empathy, and self-deception. 
Prerequisite: One course in Philosophy. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 320 Ethics and Law (4 Credits)

Study of selected problems concerning law, society, and morality. Topics include legal paternalism, legal moralism, the ethics of criminal punishment, political obligation, civil disobedience, and justification of the state. Readings from classical and contemporary sources.  
Prerequisite: one course in philosophy, POLI 212, POLI 214, or by permission. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 332 Philosophy of Science (4 Credits)

Examination of fundamental issues in the philosophy of science. Topics include the nature of scientific theories and theory change, scientific rationality, and realism/antirealism. 
Prerequisite: PHIL 220, one 200-level science course, or by permission. 
Offered every third year.

PHIL 333 Philosophy of Biology (4 Credits)

Examination of fundamental issues in the philosophy of biology. Particular attention is paid to understanding evolutionary theory, the implications of modern genetics, and the nature and limits of biological theory. Addresses contemporary questions in these fields. 
Prerequisite: two courses in philosophy or BIOL 239 or by permission. 
Offered every third year.

PHIL 334 Epistemology (4 Credits)

Examination of traditional and contemporary problems in the theory of knowledge: the challenge of skepticism; role of belief, truth, and certainty; whether there are different kinds of knowing. 
Prerequisite: One course in philosophy or by permission. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 336 Philosophy of Mind (4 Credits)

Seminar examining selected topics in the philosophy of mind, emphasizing contemporary sources. Topics include the mind-body problem, privacy and the problem of other minds, self-deception, artificial intelligence, personal identity, and analysis of such concepts as memory, emotion, action, belief, and dreaming.
Prerequisite: one course in philosophy.
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 341 Nineteenth-Century Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of major thinkers in the period from 1780 to 1850. Primary focus on Kant and Hegel, with readings from original sources.
Prerequisite: one course in philosophy or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

PHIL 342 Twentieth-Century Continental Thought (4 Credits)

Examination of original texts in existential and phenomenological traditions, exploring distinctiveness and interrelation. Readings selected from Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Beauvoir, Merleau-Ponty, and Levinas. 
Prerequisite: one course in philosophy or by permission.
Offered as needed.

PHIL 343 Twentieth-Century Analytic Thought (3-4 Credits)

Examination of original texts in the Anglo- American tradition. Readings selected from authors such as Wittgenstein, Austin, Carnap, Ayer, Ryle, and Quine. 
Prerequisite: one course in philosophy or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

PHIL 345 American Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of classic texts in American philosophy. Readings selected from the writings of Peirce, Royce, James, Dewey, Santayana, and appropriate twentieth-century thinkers. 
Prerequisite: one course in philosophy or by permission.
Offered as needed.

PHIL 350 Symbolic Logic (2-4 Credits)

Study of increasingly complex systems of deductive logic. Topics include sentential logic and predicate logic. 
Prerequisite: either one course in philosophy, or by permission.
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 360 Advanced Topics in Philosophy (3-4 Credits)

Advanced study of selected topics, movements, authors, or works in philosophy chosen to reflect student interest and instructor availability. May be repeated for degree credit, for a maximum of 12 credits, given a different topic.
Prerequisite: one philosophy course or by permission.

PHIL 460 Advanced Seminar in Philosophy (4 Credits)

An advanced and in-depth examination of a particular topic, movement or figure in philosophy that requires the completion of a major writing assignment. Topics vary. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Prerequisite: junior or senior standing and PHIL 200 or PHIL 220, or by permission.