Latin American Studies 

The Director 
Barbara Conboy, Communication Sciences & Disorders

The Advisory Committee
Ivonne Gordon Vailakis, Spanish
Shana Higgins, Library
Daniel Klooster, Environmental Studies
Liesder Mayea, Spanish
Sara Schoonmaker, Sociology and Anthropology
Patricia L. Wasielewski, Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies/Sociology and Anthropology
Steve Wuhs, Political Science

The Major 
Latin American Studies allows students to bring together knowledge from environmental studies, the humanities, and the social sciences to build a foundation in the cultural, economic, environmental, geographical, historical, literary, and political contexts of Latin America. In addition to breadth in Latin American Studies through coursework in multiple disciplines, the program also emphasizes depth in understanding through concentration in a focused problem, topic, area, discipline, or method. Students develop significant language skills, cross-cultural understanding, an interdisciplinary approach, and the ability to incorporate Latin American perspectives in their analysis of fields including art, development, environmental conservation, history, literature, and politics. Both a major and minor are offered.

Learning outcomes for this program may be found at www.redlands.edu/BA-LAST/learning-outcomes.

Graduates in Latin American Studies will:
• Communicate competently in Spanish or another language from Latin America.
• Examine their core interest through two or more disciplinary approaches.
• Draw connections between the unifying elements of the Latin American Experience and their manifestations in particular regions, countries, and cultures.
• Articulate the ways in which an immersion experience altered their understanding of Latin America.

Major Requirements 

Spanish-Language Requirement 
All students majoring or minoring in Latin American Studies must achieve communicative competence in Spanish or another language from Latin America. We require satisfactory completion of SPAN 202 or demonstrated proficiency in Spanish at this level. Demonstrated competence in a Latin American language other than English may be substituted for Spanish under exceptional circumstances.

Study Abroad Requirement 
A semester-long program of study abroad in Latin America or other Latin American immersion experience, such as significant interactions with Latin American immigrant communities in the USA, is required for all majors and minors, and can both count toward the program’s language requirement and concentration courses. Students should consult their Latin American Studies advisor, the Director, and the University’s Office of Study Abroad for program options.

Capstone Experience 
Majors are required to complete a culminating project in Latin American Studies, such as a portfolio of work and reflections, or a substantial project reflecting the learning outcomes of the major. The project should be completed while the student is enrolled in an upper-division seminar or capstone taught by a program committee member, preferably during the Fall semester of the senior year.

Bachelor of Arts 
The major in Latin American studies consists of 12 courses (48 credits).

Core Course (1 course/4 credits)

LAST 101 Introduction to Latin America (4 Credits)

Explores the history, environment, and diversity of human cultures shaping Latin America. Untangles the interrelationships between Latin American regions and global systems, including conquest, colonialism, and globalization. Takes a geographical approach, synthesizing the influence of environment, culture, technology, history, and the influence of power at various scales.

Methods Course (1 course/4 credits)

Majors must take one methods course from the approved list, or another course approved by the LAST advisor or director. Methods courses without Latin American content may be used to fulfill the methods requirement, but do not count toward the credits needed to complete the major. Students are advised to use courses from their content areas for additional appropriate methods to build depth in the major. Note: many of these courses have prerequisites, so students should plan accordingly. The following are some suggested courses, but not a complete list of those that may count for this requirement. Consult the LAST advisor or director if you have questions. Please note: students may choose between MATH 111 or POLI 202. EVST 399 can be taken with a focus on Latin America. 

ENGL 201 Critical Reading (4 Credits)

An introduction to close critical reading of texts in several genres and to argument about literary texts. Students will attend to the characteristics and effects of literary language and will explore varieties of form, structure, style, and genre. They will also be introduced to a basic vocabulary of literary critical terms. 
Recommended: one 100-level literature course or comparable first-year seminar or by permission.

EVST 235 Environmental Impact Assessment (4 Credits)

Comprehensive overview of environmental impact assessment. Federal and State legislative foundations governing the content and process of environmental review are examined. Culminates in preparation of an environmental impact report analyzing the potential impacts and mitigations. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 and completion of a WA course.

EVST 399 Research Methods & Design (4 Credits)

A survey course of qualitative and quantitative research methods used by environmental scientists. We will learn techniques from both social and natural sciences. A research proposal that can double as the EVST capstone proposal will be an end-goal of the course. Students from outside EVST can apply to join. Numeric grade only.
Prerequisite: EVST 250. 

MATH 111 Elementary Statistics with Applications (4 Credits)

Descriptive and inferential statistics for students from diverse fields. Distribution, correlation, probability, hypothesis testing, use of tables, and examination of the misuse of statistics and relation of statistics to vital aspects of life. Computer packages used as tools throughout the course.

POLI 202 Statistical Analysis and Mapping of Social Science Data (4 Credits)

Principles of hypothesis development and testing, strategies for making controlled comparisons, principles of statistical inference, and tests of statistical significance. Development and testing of important research questions using such prominent data sets as the General Social Survey and the National Election Series.

POLI 200 The Study of Politics (4 Credits)

Overview of approaches to the study of politics. Students develop skills necessary to read, assess, and produce works of social science. Coursework involves analytic reviews of monographs and articles, production of literature reviews, and the development of an independent research proposal.

SOAN 300 Research Methods and Design (4 Credits)

Critical analysis of research methodology involving both quantitative and qualitative approaches to the collection of data. Practical experience in data collection and analysis accompanies discussion of ethical issues.
Prerequisites: SOAN 100, or SOAN 102, or SOAN 104; and junior standing plus two SOAN courses at the 200 level or above; or by permission.

SOAN 301 Fieldwork and Ethnographic Methods (4 Credits)

Examination of the nature of ethnography and the application of fieldwork methods for the development of an ethnography. Emphasis on practicing the method of participant observation for data formulation. Ethical and methodological issues of fieldwork are examined. 
Prerequisites: SOAN 100, or SOAN 102, or SOAN 104; and two SOAN courses at the 200 level or above; or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

SPA 110 Introduction to Spatial Analysis and GIS (4 Credits)

Introduction to concepts of spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS). Emphasis on spatial reasoning and analysis. Topics include the spatial data models, data requirements and acquisition, spatial analysis using GIS, implementation within an organization, and especially the application of GIS to problem-solving in other disciplines. 

SPAN 410 Introduction to Spanish Linguistics (4 Credits)

Synchronic investigation of the principles of articulatory phonetics, morphology, syntax, and semantics of Spanish. Includes a review of grammar and a discussion of how linguistic forms of Spanish and English compare and contrast. Taught in Spanish. 
Prerequisite: SPAN 302, placement exam, or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

WGS 330 Feminist Research Methods (4 Credits)

Students learn how feminist scholars rethink analytic paradigms and create new theoretical models to guide their work. Examination of how knowledge is constructed and deployed, how interdisciplinary feminist perspectives inform research methods, what the practical implications are of those methods, and how feminist analysis redefines traditional categories and disciplinary concepts. 
Numeric grade only.
Prerequisite: sophomore status or above. 
Offered in alternate years. 

Content Areas (8 courses/32 credits)
LAST majors must take eight courses, distributed across three content areas: Environmental Studies, the Humanities, and the Social Sciences (see the list of “Content Area Courses” below). To demonstrate breadth, at least one course must be taken from each content area. To demonstrate depth, LAST majors develop, in consultation with the LAST advisor, thematic, regional, or disciplinary emphases based on at least four courses, structured around their interests and experiences. Study abroad courses apply to specific content areas at the discretion of the LAST advisor or director.

Electives (2 courses/8 credits)
In addition to the above requirements, LAST majors must take another two courses. These include courses such as LAST 400 (Capstone in Latin American Studies), LAST 431/SOAN 431, POLI 495, directed independent studies, additional methods classes, and other electives falling into a content area.

Minor Requirements 

Spanish-Language Requirement 
All students majoring or minoring in Latin American Studies must achieve communicative competence in Spanish or another language from Latin America. We require satisfactory completion of SPAN 202 or demonstrated proficiency in Spanish at this level. Demonstrated competence in a Latin American language other than English may be substituted for Spanish under exceptional circumstances.

Study Abroad Requirement 
A semester-long program of study abroad in Latin America or other Latin American immersion experience, such as significant interactions with Latin American immigrant communities in the USA, is required for all majors and minors, and can both count toward the program’s language requirement and concentration courses. Students should consult their Latin American Studies advisor, the LAST director, and the University’s Office of Study Abroad for program options. The minor in Latin American Studies consists of six courses emphasizing breadth in Latin American Studies.

Core Course (1 course/4 credits)

Content Area and Methods Courses (5 courses/18-20 credits)
Minors must take an additional five LAST, cross-listed, or study-abroad courses approved by the LAST advisor or director. At least two of the three LAST content areas (Environmental Studies, the Humanities, and the Social Sciences) must be represented by at least one course. Study abroad courses apply to specific content area at the discretion of the LAST advisor or director. 

Suggested Content Area Courses for the major and minor (other courses, such as Study Abroad courses and other electives, may be substituted with the LAST program Director's Approval)

LAST 101 Introduction to Latin America (4 Credits)

Explores the history, environment, and diversity of human cultures shaping Latin America. Untangles the interrelationships between Latin American regions and global systems, including conquest, colonialism, and globalization. Takes a geographical approach, synthesizing the influence of environment, culture, technology, history, and the influence of power at various scales.

Environmental Studies Content Area

EVST 220 Physical Geography (4 Credits)

Exploration of the physical geography of Earth by examination of lithospheric, atmospheric, hydrological, and biological processes. Laboratory includes field methods, topographic map reading, and in-depth discussion of these principles. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.

EVST 242 Food and Nature (4 Credits)

Examines the ways production, trade, and consumption of food affects workers, consumers, and ecosystems. Topics include the political economy of food systems, genetically modified food, biofuels, the carbon footprints, the modern meat system, and potential solutions such as fair trade, organic certification, the slow food movement, and local food. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 recommended.

EVST 250 Environmental Design Studio I (3-4 Credits)

Students work collaboratively in teams on environmental problem-solving projects. Many studios make use of GIS and other spatial analysis tools. Research concepts and tools become more complex in advanced levels of this sequence. 
Prerequisites for EVST 250: EVST 100 and EVST 110 or by permission.

EVST 335 Environment and Development (4 Credits)

Identifies threats to biodiversity and culture and relates them to poverty, inequality, and overexploitation. Traces roots of current problems to colonization, international exploitation, and national development models. Examines sustainable development debates and initiatives.

EVST 276 Market-based Conservation Policy (4 Credits)

Conservation policy increasingly relies on markets. Examples include non-governmental labels such as organic and fair trade as well as various payment for environmental services policies promoted by governments and international treaties. Concepts like equity, efficiency, the commodity chain, and the commodification of nature will be mobilized to analyze these policies. 
Recommended: EVST 100.

EVST 350 Environmental Design Studio II (3-4 Credits)

Students work collaboratively in teams on environmental problem-solving projects. Many studios make use of GIS and other spatial analysis tools. Research concepts and tools become more complex in advanced levels of this sequence. 
Prerequisites for EVST 250: EVST 100 and EVST 110 or by permission.

Humanities Content Area

ENGL 239 Chicana/o Literature (4 Credits)

Serves as an introduction to contemporary Chicana/o literature, emphasizing historical and cultural contexts. This class will focus on a body of work that emerges from the Chicana/o movement in the 1960s and continues to evolve as an expression of artistic and sociopolitical self-determination. 
Offered as needed.

HIST 131 Latin American Civilizations (4 Credits)

Introduction to Latin America through analysis of selected social, economic, and political themes. Topics include the colonial heritage, economic dependency, a stratified society, the role of the church, the Latin American military, and the influence of the United States in the region. 
Offered as needed.

HIST 376 California Indian Seminar (4 Credits)

The result of combining ethnography and history into ethnohistory presents the Native American side of Indian-White relations in California. Using GIS tools of analysis and plotting permits mapping Indian movement in the mission system, revealing their agency and growing power in coping with European and American directed social change.

LAST 140 Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Latin American History (4 Credits)

Examination of the economic, political, and cultural factors that shaped the historical construction of race, ethnicity, and gender in modern Latin America. Analysis of how different social and political mass movements influenced the evolution of racial/ethnic identity and gender roles.
Offered as needed. 

LAST 150 History of Race in Americas (4 Credits)

Focus on the social and cultural construction of race in North America and Latin America. Analysis of the predominance of the eugenics movement, ethnocentrism, misogyny, racial discrimination, and violence defined within the Americas during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Offered as needed.

LAST 220 Latin American Cinema (4 Credits)

Explores the constitution of Latin American cultural identity through film, both features and documentaries. Topics covered may include relationship between film production and the state, national identity, class, race and ethnicity, gender, concerns about historical representations, and the use of film as a tool for social change. 
Offered as needed.

SPAN 360 Travel/Study in Ecuador (3 Credits)

Students travel to Ecuador and live with Ecuadorian families as part of the experience. Includes tours of the historic city, visits to museums, and travel to different Ecuadorian geographic zones. Students learn about the ecosystems, multiethnic groups, art, and culture of Ecuador while being immersed in the Spanish language.

SPAN 424 Introduction to Hispanic Literature (4 Credits)

Reading and introduction to Hispanic literary texts to develop skills in literary analysis and critical writing using examples from Hispanic literature in the three genres. Students will read such authors as Márquez, Cortázar, Poniatowska, Garro and Fuentes. This course is intended to introduce students to in-depth understanding of literature and writing. 
Prerequisite: SPAN 302, placement exam, or by permission.

SPAN 425 Spanish-American Civilization (4 Credits)

Geography, history, art, literature, and society of Spanish-American lands. Class discussion and oral and written reports required. 
Prerequisite: SPAN 302, placement exam, or by permission.
Offered in alternate years.

SPAN 427 Survey of Spanish-American Literature (4 Credits)

Development of Spanish-American literature from the pre-Columbian to the present day. Emphasis on relating literary works to historical events and cultural values. 
Prerequisite: SPAN 302, placement exam, or by permission. 
Offered in alternate years.

SPAN 440 Spanish-American Narrative (4 Credits)

Contemporary novelists from early beginnings to present day. Addresses principal political and social Latin American problems. 
Prerequisite: SPAN 302, placement exam, or by permission.
Offered in alternate years.

SPAN 441 Hispanic Women Novelists (4 Credits)

Study of Hispanic novels written by women during the last decades to reflect on the problems faced by women in present-day Spain and Latin America. The chosen works exemplify different aspects of women’s liberation, contrasting the situation of Hispanic women of the past and in the present. 
Prerequisite: SPAN 302, placement exam, or by permission.
Offered as needed.

SPAN 442 Latin American Literature of the 20th (4 Credits)

This upper division class, taught completely in Spanish, is an overview of Latin American literature of the 20th Century. In addition to reading works that have traditionally been considered canonical masterpieces, we will also analyze non-canonical works. In this course, we will analyze a series of topics and concepts from four different genres (short story, poetry, theater and novel) that are relevant for the understanding of Latin American literature.
Offered as needed. 

SPAN 450 Hispanic Poetry: Genres (3-4 Credits)

Examination of poetry through its varied expressions in Hispanic literature. Successive offerings focus on the historical development of the poetry of Latin America or Spain. Exploration of selected topics in literary themes in the genres. May be repeated for degree credit given different topics.
Prerequisite: SPAN 302, placement exam, or by permission.
Offered as needed.

SPAN 452 Hispanic Theatre (4 Credits)

A study of dramatic and theatrical Hispanic works, combining both canonical and non-canonical texts. Includes drama theory, videos of dramas, live plays, and the process of “mise en scéne” or staging. 
Prerequisite: SPAN 302, placement exam, or by permission.
Offered as needed.

Social Science Content Area

CDIS 260 Latin America: Focus on Language, Culture, and Education (3 Credits)

This travel course uses experiential learning, self-reflection, reading, writing, and discussion to provide students with a foundation for understanding cross-cultural differences in language and education. Students work with children in community-based educational programs, focusing on language-development issues (e.g., bilingualism, literacy, and the broad impact of difficulties with language on education). Open to non-majors. Previous coursework in Spanish is strongly recommended. 
Offered as needed.

POLI 230 Latin American Politics and Development (4 Credits)

Introduction to the dynamics of politics in Latin America and contemporary issues of concern. Examination of political stability and recent trends toward democratization. Assessment of the success and/or failure of the different types of political systems in 20th-century Latin America, focusing on the role of landowners, the military, political parties, labor unions, and the church.
Offered as needed.

POLI 362 Special Topics in Comparative Politics (3-4 Credits)

Selected intermediate topics in comparative government chosen to reflect student interest and instructor availability. May be repeated for degree credit for a maximum of 8 credits given a different topic. 
Prerequisites: A Comparative Politics and International Relations course.
Offered as needed.

POLI 462 Advanced Seminar in Comparative Politics (4 Credits)

Topics are announced in the Schedule of Classes. May be repeated for degree credit, provided sections are in different topics. 
Prerequisite: any Comparative Politics or International Relations course.

POLI 495 Political Science Capstone (4 Credits)

Four-credit guided research seminar for graduating seniors. Students will produce and present individual research projects with a common theme. Work must reflect best practices and mastery of the Department's learning outcomes required for major; students must pass to graduate.

LAST 310 The Making of Modern Mexico (4 Credits)

Examination of the social and cultural development of Mexican society from the inception of the Mexican Revolution in 1910 to the Chiapas rebellion of the 1990s. Focus on the impact of political mobilization, social reform, revolutionary change, gender roles, regionalism, ethnic identity, and armed struggle in the creation of the modern Mexican nation.
Offered as needed.

LAST 431 “Drug Wars” in the Americas (4 Credits)

Exploration of the social control of drug use, both formal and informal focusing on the Americas. The historic and contemporary development of U.S. drug laws is a focus as is international cooperation and policies that deal with controlled substances. We look at ways drugs, drug distribution and consumption are molded by our cultural practices and, in turn, how they help construct our ever-changing vision of culture, particularly in an increasingly global society.
Prerequisite: LAST 101 or SOAN 100 or SOAN 102 or POLI 111 or POLI 123.
Offered as needed.
Not open to students who have received credit for SOAN 431.

REST 260 Topics in Race and Ethnic Studies (4 Credits)

Topics of current interest in race and ethnic studies. May be repeated for degree credit given different topics. 
Offered as needed.

SOAN 222 Development and Change in the Americas (4 Credits)

Explores the processes of development and social change in the Americas, in the historical context of capitalist transformation from colonialism to contemporary conditions of globalization. Strategies ways to challenge existing patterns of global inequality by creating alternative forms of development and consciousness.
Prerequisite: SOAN 100 or SOAN 102 or LAST 101. 
Offered as needed.

SOAN 257 Latin American Societies and Cultures (4 Credits)

A historical and comparative analysis of society, culture, and politics in a range of Latin American countries. Emphasis on the effects of global power relations on social and political institutions, as well as economic development. Exploration of relationships between racial and ethnic groups in Latin American societies. 
Offered as needed.

SOAN 269 Travel/Study in Sociology and Anthropology (3 Credits)

Travel/study tours to various world locales. Past locations have included Australia, England, Jamaica, Baja California, and southern Mexico. Focus typically on wider social processes present in the travel locale. Prerequisite: by permission. May be repeated for degree credit, for a maximum of 6 credits given a different destination.
Offered as needed.

SOAN 322 The Border and Beyond (3 Credits)

This course explores the idea of border – not just those that exist physically, but also the cultural, racial, ethnic, and other borders we live with daily. Several trips exploring the immediate area of Southern California provide the basis of our examination of how borders are created, crossed, breeched, transformed and enforced. 
Prerequisites: SOAN 100, or SOAN 102, or SOAN 104.

SOAN 360 Topics in Sociology (2-4 Credits)

Topics of current interest such as collective behavior, religion and social conflicts, sociology of medicine, sociology of disabilities, or sociology of sport. 
Prerequisite: by permission is required for the 400-level course. The 200 level and above may be repeated for degree credit given a different topic. 
Offered as needed.

Advising 
Both major and minor students must have a faculty advisor in the LAST program. They can choose from the director or those on the Advisory Committee. Advisors will aid students in choosing a range of courses, fulfilling their respective requirements, and focusing on their concentrations. Students declaring either a major or minor will need to fill out a declaration form with the director.

Internships
A semester-long internship or service-learning project can count toward the completion of the major or minor. Students should consult with their Latin American Studies advisor or the LAST director, who can aid them in finding and/or setting up their internship. Internships need to be focused upon some aspect of Latin American society, language, or culture. If conducted in Spanish, the internship will count toward the Spanish language requirement.

Course Descriptions (LAST)

LAST 101 Introduction to Latin America (4 Credits)

Explores the history, environment, and diversity of human cultures shaping Latin America. Untangles the interrelationships between Latin American regions and global systems, including conquest, colonialism, and globalization. Takes a geographical approach, synthesizing the influence of environment, culture, technology, history, and the influence of power at various scales.

LAST 140 Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Latin American History (4 Credits)

Examination of the economic, political, and cultural factors that shaped the historical construction of race, ethnicity, and gender in modern Latin America. Analysis of how different social and political mass movements influenced the evolution of racial/ethnic identity and gender roles.
Offered as needed. 

LAST 150 History of Race in Americas (4 Credits)

Focus on the social and cultural construction of race in North America and Latin America. Analysis of the predominance of the eugenics movement, ethnocentrism, misogyny, racial discrimination, and violence defined within the Americas during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Offered as needed.

LAST 160 Special Topics (4 Credits)

Topics of current interest in Latin American Studies. May be repeated for degree credit, given a different topic, for a maximum of 8 credits.

LAST 220 Latin American Cinema (4 Credits)

Explores the constitution of Latin American cultural identity through film, both features and documentaries. Topics covered may include relationship between film production and the state, national identity, class, race and ethnicity, gender, concerns about historical representations, and the use of film as a tool for social change. 
Offered as needed.

LAST 260 Topics in Latin American Studies (4 Credits)

Diverse topics in Latin American studies dealing with either specific themes, currents of thought, or any other economic, political, social, or cultural manifestation coming from Latin America. May be repeated for degree credit, given a different topic, for a maximum of 12 credits.

LAST 310 The Making of Modern Mexico (4 Credits)

Examination of the social and cultural development of Mexican society from the inception of the Mexican Revolution in 1910 to the Chiapas rebellion of the 1990s. Focus on the impact of political mobilization, social reform, revolutionary change, gender roles, regionalism, ethnic identity, and armed struggle in the creation of the modern Mexican nation.
Offered as needed.

LAST 360 Advanced Topics in Latin American Studies (4 Credits)

Interdisciplinary approaches to key issues, periods, personalities, movements, or tendencies in Latin American intellectual, political, social, or cultural history. Topics chosen tend to be examined from a cultural studies perspective. May be repeated for degree credit, given a different topic, for a maximum of 12 credits. 

LAST 400 Capstone in Latin American Studies (4 Credits)

This course integrates the interdisciplinary work of Latin American Studies majors and minors, including their on-campus classes and study abroad coursework. Students engage in the production and consumption of original research in Latin American Studies and begin to plan post-collegiate professional lives as Latin Americanists. 
Prerequisite: LAST 101.
Offered as needed. 

LAST 431 “Drug Wars” in the Americas (4 Credits)

Exploration of the social control of drug use, both formal and informal focusing on the Americas. The historic and contemporary development of U.S. drug laws is a focus as is international cooperation and policies that deal with controlled substances. We look at ways drugs, drug distribution and consumption are molded by our cultural practices and, in turn, how they help construct our ever-changing vision of culture, particularly in an increasingly global society.
Prerequisite: LAST 101 or SOAN 100 or SOAN 102 or POLI 111 or POLI 123.
Offered as needed.
Not open to students who have received credit for SOAN 431.