Integrated Programs of Study 

 

Prelaw

The Program Advisors
Jack Osborn, Business Administration
Arthur G. Svenson, Political Science

Major Emphasis
Students should plan a major in a specific discipline in consultation with their advisors. Typically the major would be from one of the following departments: business, economics, global business, political science, history, English, philosophy, public policy, or sociology and anthropology.

Recommended Central Courses

We recommend that prelaw students select a minimum of eight courses from the following list:

ACCT 210 Principles of Financial Accounting and Reporting (4 Credits)

Financial accounting and reporting concepts and procedures that provide a history of economic activity, resources, obligations. Emphasis is on preparing and using financial information at an enterprise level. 
Prerequisites: ECON 101.

ACCT 220 Principles of Managerial Accounting (4 Credits)

Analysis of financial and relevant non-financial information used in planning, motivating, evaluating, and control. Economic and behavioral concepts and quantitative techniques are integrated throughout. Topics: cost behavior, budgeting, analysis of variance, performance measurement, and pricing. 
Prerequisites: ACCT 210.

BUS 226 Rise of Capitalism 1860–1941 (4 Credits)

Examines the evolution of capitalism in the United States within a global context. The growth of the firm, labor movements, technological innovation, development of the administrative state, financial and monetary reforms, and resistance to capitalism provide lenses to understand the period and parallels with contemporary issues in political economy.
Prerequisites: ECON 101 (or ECON 250 or ECON 251) with a minimum grade of 2.0 or higher; students must have a cumulative GPA of 2.7 to enroll, or by permission.
Additional course fees.

GLB 228 Globalization (4 Credits)

Traces the evolution of capitalism in the United States, China, Japan, and Europe, reviewing varying cultural and political approaches which create varied economic models. Students will explore the issues of doing business in each of the above-named nations or groups through analysis of an assigned company.

BUS 240 Business Law (4 Credits)

An introduction to the American legal system, our constitutional framework, the role of judicial decisions, and statutory law. Special emphasis is placed on business torts and contract law, along with other concepts important in the business world.
Prerequisite: BUS 226, or BUS 228, or GLB 228, or ACCT 210, or by permission of the Chair.

BUS 310 Principles of Management and Organization Behavior (4 Credits)

Dynamics of individual and group behavior are explored, in addition to selected topics of entrepreneurship, technology, and strategic planning. Students are asked to view the internal workings of organizations as well as to consider organizations in a larger, more global context. Classic and modern texts are used.
Prerequisites: BUS 136, ACCT 210, and junior standing or by permission.

BUS 353 Financial Management (4 Credits)

Study of financial planning and analysis, taxation, capital budgeting, risk and cost of capital, cash flow analysis, management of working capital and long-term funds, dividend policy, and valuation. 
Prerequisites: ACCT 220 and ECON 101, and one course from POLI 202, MATH 111, or PSYC 250. Not open to students who have received credit for GLB-353.

ECON 101 Principles of Economics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of economic systems from a micro and macro perspective. The course includes economic principles underlying the process of consumption, production, and distribution in a market-oriented economy (microeconomics), and the structure, operation, measures, and major theoretical models of the whole economy (macroeconomics).

ECON 350 Microeconomic Theory (4 Credits)

Theory of the household, the firm, and the market. The logic of market decision-making, resource allocation, and efficiency questions. 
Prerequisites: ECON 101, MATH 120, or MATH 121, or MATH 118, and MATH 119, or by permission. 

ENGL 126 Literary Inquiries (4 Credits)

Explores different kinds of literature–stories, poems, and plays–studying idiom and culture. In discussion, students discover new ways to interpret literature. In their critical writing, they investigate and employ the power of language. They acquire a grounding in the analytic practice for the serious study of literature.

ENGL 130 Literature of the Americas (4 Credits)

This course explores American literature broadly, whether defined by regional boundaries, such as nation or hemisphere, or cultural ones, such as identity, language, custom, or shared history. Covers multiple genres and periods. Special attention to developing skills in critical reading, literary analysis, and argumentative writing.

ENGL 161 Studies in Literature (3-4 Credits)

Selected topics, themes, or authors in literary fields. May be repeated for degree credit, given different topics, for a maximum of 8 credits.
Offered as needed.

ENGL 230 American Jewish Literature (4 Credits)

Introduction to American Jewish literature from the 19th century forward. Covers genres including poetry, drama, and film, with strong emphasis on fiction. Explores Jewish writing in the U.S. in relation to immigration; the labor movement; the Holocaust and orthodoxy; and Jewishness at the crossroads of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture. 
Offered as needed.

ENGL 233 African-American Literature (4 Credits)

Literature from the 18th century to the present. Major trends and themes are examined from historical, social, and psychological perspectives.

ENGL 237 Immigrant Literature (4 Credits)

Introduction to literature of U.S. immigration from the 19th century to the present. We will explore immigrant experience in terms of race, ethnicity, and national identity; cultural, religious, gender, and generational tensions; and assimilation in theory and practice, from the perspectives of those in the process of becoming Americans. 
Offered as needed.

ENGL 256 Native American Literature (4 Credits)

Introduction to contemporary Native American literature. Covers a breadth of genres: essays, poetry, short fiction, and film. Historical, cultural, and political approaches will shape class discussions, and students will engage in extensive textual analysis. We will consider carefully the role of American Indian women writers in this evolving tradition. 
Offered as needed.

ENGL 309 Writing in the Public Sphere (4 Credits)

An advanced topics course in writing and rhetoric examining genre boundaries and variations in written discourse primarily outside the academy. Topics might include public advocacy, alternative rhetorics, the ethics of representation, and non-canonical argument paradigms (feminist, moral, post-modern, etc.). Because this is a writing course, study and practice of writing genres appropriate to the topic will be central to the course. 
Prerequisite: Completion of the WA requirement, junior or senior standing, or by permission.

POLI 111 Introduction to American Politics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the dynamics of government and politics in the United States and analysis of major contemporary public policy problems.

POLI 208 California Politics (3-4 Credits)

A three-part course. The first part focuses on the current political environment in California, learning who the representatives are and how the system works. The second portion centers on reflection upon the past, and in the last section, students study how California’s institutions have formed and evolved over the years.

POLI 212 Classical Political Thought (4 Credits)

Intensive reading of the political texts forming the foundation of the Western tradition of political philosophy. Emphasis on ancient Greek thought, particularly Plato, Aristotle, and Sophocles, with some survey of Roman, medieval, and/or Confucian political thought.

POLI 306 Constitutional Law: National and State Powers (4 Credits)

Examination of governmental powers focusing primarily on the Supreme Court’s interpretation of constitutional language contained in Articles I, II, III, VI, and Amendment X; the relationships among legislative, executive, and judicial powers, as well as the nexus between national and state powers, are extensively explored. 
Prerequisite: sophomore standing.

POLI 307 Constitutional Law: Liberty and Authority (4 Credits)

Analysis of the Supreme Court’s interpretation of both substantive and procedural rights as they are outlined in the Bill of Rights and are applied to state governments. The ever-present tension between individual rights and social responsibility serves as the thematic framework. 
Prerequisite: sophomore standing.

HIST 121 American History to 1877 (4 Credits)

This survey explores major themes in the development of American culture, economy, and politics from First Contact through Reconstruction. Topics include colonial encounters, the Revolutionary War, the rise of participatory democracy, slavery and the creation of race, the “Market Revolution,” geographic expansion, and the Civil War and its aftermath.

HIST 122 American History since 1877 (4 Credits)

This survey explores major themes in the development of American culture, economy, and politics from the Civil War and its aftermath to the present. Topics include the rise of American empire; industrialization; urbanization and suburbanization; war; political and social reform and activism; mass culture and mass media; and the study of class, race, gender, and sexuality.

PHIL 110 Contemporary Moral Issues (4 Credits)

Examination of competing ethical and social-political theories in the context of current ethical controversies.

PHIL 151 Reasoning and Logic (4 Credits)

Practical introduction to logic and critical thinking, with emphasis on developing the ability to detect fallacious arguments and construct sound ones in a variety of practical contexts.

PHIL 320 Ethics and Law (4 Credits)

Study of selected problems concerning law, society, and morality. Topics include legal paternalism, legal moralism, the ethics of criminal punishment, political obligation, civil disobedience, and justification of the state. Readings from classical and contemporary sources.  
Prerequisite: one course in philosophy, POLI 212, POLI 214, or by permission. 
Offered in alternate years.

SPCH 110 Fundamentals of Speech (4 Credits)

Principles of public speaking and interpretation with classroom evaluation of speeches. Designed to enhance the student’s skills in persuasive or informative speaking.

SPCH 111 Contemporary Oral Argumentation (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of argumentation, controversy, and debate through theory and practice. Focuses on theories of argumentation and debate and providing students with multiple opportunities to refine their argumentative voices. Students will be expected to participate on a regular basis, be creative, and think and speak on their feet.

Recommended Elective Courses

Students are advised to take at least five courses in this area, taking care not to duplicate courses in the Liberal Arts Foundation or those from the major. (Specific courses are determined by students in consultation with their advisors.)

BUS 354 Investments (4 Credits)

The course examines investment analysis and portfolio management through the study of the nature and functioning of securities markets, alternative investment opportunities, valuation of stock, fixed income securities, derivative securities. 
Prerequisite: BUS 353 or ACCT 310 or by permission. Not open to students who have received credit for GLB-354.

GLB 336 International Business (4 Credits)

Examines the relationship of world, regional, and national institutions and cultures to businesses operating within their environments. The major trading blocs of NAFTA and the European Union are studied, as well as the nature of trade and business with and within China, Japan, Mexico, and the European Union.
Prerequisites: GLB 228 and junior standing or by permission.

BUS 421 Corporate Finance (4 Credits)

This course studies financial management in the corporate setting at an advanced level. Topics include the firm’s investment and financing decisions, capital budgeting analysis, investment analysis under uncertainty, the cost of capital, capital structure theory, dividend policy, and other current topics in finance. 
Prerequisite: BUS 353 or ACCT 310 or by permission. Not open to students who have received credit for GLB 421.

GLB 450 The European Union (4 Credits)

Focuses on European institutions and the conduct of business within the Union, beginning with the 1991 Maastricht Treaty. The impact of anti-trust policy and trade relations with the United States is followed closely.
Prerequisite: junior standing or by permission. 

ECON 254 Economics of the Public Sector (4 Credits)

This course looks at the economics of public expenditure and public revenue. Public expenditure: allocative role of federal, state, and local governments; social choice, provision of public goods and public policy to correct diseconomies such as pollution. Public revenue: Alternative forms of taxation and their impact on economic efficiency, equity, and growth.
Prerequisite: ECON 100 or ECON 101 or by permission. 
Offered in alternate years.

ECON 452 Industrial Organization and Public Policy (4 Credits)

Analysis of the various ways that firms in the imperfectly competitive industries seek to compete or to gain and maintain market power. Topics include theory of the firm, price discrimination, quality discrimination, advertising, product differentiation, entry deterrence, cartelization and the social welfare implications of firm behavior and industrial structure. 
Prerequisite: ECON 350 or by permission.
Offered in alternate years.

ECON 455 Environmental and Resource Economics (4 Credits)

Overview of the theory and management of natural resource use and environmental policy. Topics include the control of air and water pollution, solid waste management, and recycling, forestry, curbing suburban sprawl, water management, and mitigation of climate change. Issues addressed from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. 
Prerequisite: ECON 350 or by permission. 
Recommended: ECON 351. 
Offered in alternate years.

ENGL 210 Poetry (4 Credits)

Exploration of the structures of lyric poetry, with a focus on rhythm, figuration, and tonality. Texts are chosen from a wide range of poets, with an ear for the sheer pleasure of poetic language.

ENGL 216 Poetry East-West (4 Credits)

Comparative study of poetry from the Chinese, European, and American traditions. Attentive reading of poems from all periods with the aim of exploring similarities and differences between these two traditions. Introduction to theoretical disputes about what poetry is or does in both traditions and to issues in translation.

ENGL 221 Shakespeare to 1600 (4 Credits)

The first semester, Shakespeare to 1600, covers early plays and the sonnets, the literary traditions, and backgrounds of the plays, Shakespeare's language and theater.

ENGL 222 Shakespeare after 1600 (4 Credits)

The second semester covers plays written after 1600 with emphasis on interpreting irony and tragedy through dramatic structure and imagery.

ENGL 233 African-American Literature (4 Credits)

Literature from the 18th century to the present. Major trends and themes are examined from historical, social, and psychological perspectives.

ENGL 251 South Asian Literary Cultures (4 Credits)

Exploration of South Asian literature, with a focus on the contemporary. Covers the cultural, historical, and political contexts of British colonialism and its effects on literary cultures of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Topics may include caste, gender, globalization, sexualities, and film cultures in South Asia and its diasporas.

POLI 123 Introduction to World Politics (4 Credits)

The principal problems facing the world community and its constituent states and nations, especially crisis areas. A basic introduction to international relations and/or comparative politics and a guide to fuller understanding of current events and conceptual issues.

POLI 214 Modern Political Thought (4 Credits)

Origin, defense, and criticism of capitalistic democracy and political liberalism. Original works of such theorists as Hobbes, Locke, Madison, Rousseau, Mill, Marx, and Lenin.

POLI 220 European Politics and Development (4 Credits)

The organization, functioning, political behavior, and contemporary problems of major European governments and European intergovernmental regimes and organizations.

POLI 244 International Security (4 Credits)

A survey course on key issues of international security, including interstate and sub-state conflict, alliances, collective security, peacekeeping, preventive diplomacy, and both “traditional” and “non-traditional” threats. The course also focuses on regional security issues in Europe, the Middle East/Southwest Asia, and Northeast Asia. This course is required for students majoring in the International Politics, Peace and Security (IPPS) track of the International Relations major.

POLI 304 Congress (4 Credits)

Role of Congress in the American political system, focuses on historical development; rules, procedures, structures; and legislative behavior. Questions how Congress works and why individual members of Congress function as they do. 
Prerequisite: POLI 111 or any American politics course.

POLI 308 U.S. Presidency (4 Credits)

The operations of the modern presidency given the constraints and opportunities provided by the U.S. Constitution and other political, economic, and cultural factors. 
Prerequisite: Any American politics course.

POLI 318 American Political Thought and Practice (4 Credits)

Examination of both the distinctly American forms of political philosophy and theoretical approaches analyzing the practice of American politics. Readings include primary texts (particularly the founding), normative theory, and interpretive approaches. Topics may include the Constitution, equality, individualism, pluralism, pragmatism, race and gender in American politics, and citizenship.

HIST 111 Early Modern Europe (4 Credits)

Exploration of the profound transformation that occurred in European culture as it moved from its medieval configuration to the essentially modern form assumed by the end of the 18th century. Topics include the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the birth of modern science, and the English and French revolutions.

HIST 112 Modern Europe (4 Credits)

Development of European civilization from its 19th-century display of vigorous, commanding growth to its 20th-century expressions of uncertainty, fragmentation, and barbarity. Topics include the French and Industrial revolutions, Romanticism, the rise of radical social theory, the challenge of irrationalism, the savagery of totalitarianism, total war, and genocide.

PSYC 100 Introduction to Psychology (4 Credits)

Survey of classic and contemporary theory and research in human and animal behavior. Topics include the biopsychological bases of behavior, learning, cognition, motivation, developmental and social processes, and psychological disorders and their treatment.

SOAN 100 Introduction to Sociology (4 Credits)

Study of the structure and process of social life; the impact of cultural, structural, and sociohistorical forces on groups and society; and the interdependence of society and the individual.

SOAN 102 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (4 Credits)

Introduction to the anthropological perspective in viewing personal, social, and cultural events in human life. Attention given to evolutionary and comparative ways of describing, analyzing, and interpreting ways of life from a cross-cultural perspective.

SOAN 205 Social Issues (4 Credits)

Examination of important contemporary social issues in the United States. Focus on the interrelationship of social structures, institutions, and individuals in the production and management of these issues, as well as their individual and social consequences. 
Offered as needed.

Premed/Prehealth Professions 

The Program Advisors
Please contact the biology department to be assigned a health professions advisor.

The Curriculum 
The minimum requirements for admission to most medical schools in the United States include 8 to 16-semester credits of biology, 16 to 20 of chemistry, 4 to 8 of mathematics, 6 to 8 of physics, and 8 to 10 credits from English and the humanities.

Central Courses

Students generally take the following courses. Please note: students must take 6-8 credits of English including composition. In most cases, fulfilling the WA and WB requirements will suffice, for the LAI and LAF. 

BIOL 200 Principles of Biology: Unity and Diversity (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of the diversity of living organisms and how organisms meet the challenges faced by all living things. Laboratory work emphasizes quantitative data collection and analysis while introducing students to biological diversity and physiological techniques.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131.

BIOL 201 Principles of Biology II: Molecular/Cellular Biology and Genetics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of life including molecules and biological processes, the structure of cells, and molecular and transmission genetics. Laboratory work emphasizes biochemical and genetic techniques, data collection and analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 or by permission.

CHEM 131 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: Placement into MATH 118 or higher or prerequisite or corequisite of MATH 002L or MATH 111 higher math course or permission of chemistry department.
Corequisite: CHEM 131L.

CHEM 132 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 with a minimum grade of 2.0 or higher or by permission.

CHEM 231 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 231: Grade of 2.0 or higher in CHEM 132.

CHEM 232 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 232: CHEM 231.

PHYS 220 Fundamentals of Physics I (4 Credits)

Introduction to Newtonian mechanics, fluids, and thermodynamics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. Expects competency in high school algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.

PHYS 221 Fundamentals of Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to oscillations, waves, electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 220.

PSYC 100 Introduction to Psychology (4 Credits)

Survey of classic and contemporary theory and research in human and animal behavior. Topics include the biopsychological bases of behavior, learning, cognition, motivation, developmental and social processes, and psychological disorders and their treatment.

Recommended Courses

A student’s application to medical school is strengthened if several of the following courses are taken†. Please note: students can take BIOL 334 or BIOL 344. Students may choose between MATH 121, 118 and 119, or Statistics. 

BIOL 239 Molecular Genetics and Heredity (4 Credits)

This course emphasizes the importance of molecular genetics in contemporary biology. Patterns of inheritance, gene structure and function, and techniques using recombinant DNA technology will be emphasized. Laboratory includes classical genetic analysis as well as molecular and biochemical techniques. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and 201 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133).

BIOL 334 Comparative Physiology (4 Credits)

Comparison at the cellular, organ, and whole animal levels of physiological adaptations exhibited by various invertebrate and vertebrate animals, including humans. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Students may not earn credit in both BIOL 334 and BIOL 344. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 341 Observations in the ER (1 Credits)

Provides an opportunity to observe in the emergency room at Loma Linda University Medical Center or Arrowhead County Hospital and to explore some of the issues generated by those observations. May be repeated for degree credit up to 2 credits, with preference given to non-repeating students. 
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 344 Human Physiology (4 Credits)

Functioning of the human body at the cellular, systems, and whole animal level. Emphasis on nervous, endocrine, renal, and cardiovascular systems and their interrelationships. Students may not earn credit for both BIOL 334 and BIOL 344. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 320 Biochemistry (4 Credits)

Study of the structure and function of biological molecules (including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids), enzymes, and metabolic pathways. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or by permission.

MATH 121 Calculus I (4 Credits)

Functions and their graphs; successive approximation and limits; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations. 
Prerequisite: Permission based on Mathematics Placement Exam. 

MATH 118 Integrated Calculus I (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 002L or Math Placement at MATH 118 level or by permission.

MATH 119 Integrated Calculus II (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 118 or by permission.

PHIL 216 Bioethics: Technology and Justice (4 Credits)

Examination of the ethical issues that arise from the distribution of health resources and the nature of particular procedures and technologies. Topics include fairness in rationing health resources, genetic screening, abortion, and end of life care. 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only. 
Offered in alternate years.

SOAN 100 Introduction to Sociology (4 Credits)

Study of the structure and process of social life; the impact of cultural, structural, and sociohistorical forces on groups and society; and the interdependence of society and the individual.

† To see the MCAT’s official list of topics examined, go to https://students-residents.aamc.org/applying-medical-school/article/whats-mcat-exam/.

Many of these required and recommended courses are either full-year sequences, prerequisites for other courses, not offered every semester or year, or must be completed before taking the MCAT (usually taken in the spring of the junior year). Students should plan a tentative schedule for their entire course of study early.

The health professions advisors provide students with support and information concerning course selection, the MCAT, application procedures, and letters of recommendation. Students should consult with the health professions advisors to develop programs tailored to their particular needs and interests.

For other health-related fields, admissions requirements and application procedures are similar to those for medical school. Students interested in careers in dentistry, veterinary medicine, physical therapy, physician assistance, and the like should consult with the health professions advisors for more details and information.

Proudian Interdisciplinary Honors Program 

The Program Director
Kathleen Feeley, History

Requirements
The Proudian Program is designed for up to 15 talented students in each graduating class who wish to explore interdisciplinary learning. The program offers students three special seminars on interdisciplinary topics. Two of these occur in the sophomore year (Spring and May Term), and one in the senior year (Fall). These courses frame two individualized junior-year options: study abroad or, in special cases, an internship in a profession or business. A senior thesis/project is required of each scholar. The program assumes the value—indeed the necessity—of interdisciplinary inquiry in the twenty-first century.

There are special privileges that come with election to the program. Scholars have exclusive use of the Proudian Room (Hall of Letters 200) and its equipment. They have faculty borrowing privileges at the library. Scholars may also propose alternate ways of meeting the Liberal Arts Foundation and Liberal Arts Inquiry requirements for graduation. These proposals must be approved by a faculty member who teaches in the relevant Foundation category, project and by the director. These changes also require, of course, successful completion of the full program, including senior thesis/project.

Admission to the program is competitive and based on highly selective criteria (transcripts, GPA, writing samples, faculty interviews, a scholar-led workshop). Selection takes place during the first semester of the sophomore year. More specific information concerning application may be obtained from the director of the program.

Course Descriptions (IDS)

The prerequisite for all courses is admission to the program.

IDS 365 Sophomore Seminar I (2-4 Credits)

Introduces interdisciplinary theory and method, as well as seminar learning skills. Requires completion of several papers/projects and includes experiential learning. Culminates in an academic symposium where students present their work to a University-wide audience. 
Prerequisite: admission to program.

IDS 366 Sophomore Seminar II (3 Credits)

Interdisciplinary seminar that requires completion of several papers/projects and includes group and experiential learning.
Offered every year.

IDS 380 Junior-Year Exploratory Internship (2-3 Credits)

Internship for IDS students. 

IDS 465 Senior Seminar (2-4 Credits)

Advanced interdisciplinary topics are addressed and selected by faculty, in consultation with students. This seminar includes discussion/development of senior projects/honors theses.

IDS 495 Senior Thesis (1-4 Credits)

Senior Thesis course for IDS students. 

Engineering 3-2 Combined Degree
(see the course catalog and program site, www.redlands.edu/engineering3-2 for details)

The Program Advisor and Liaison
Eric Hill, Physics

Program Description
In partnership with Columbia University in New York City, and Washington University at St. Louis, the University of Redlands provides the opportunity to earn both a B.A. from Redlands and a B.S. from either Columbia University’s Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science or Washington’s School of Engineering and Applied Science. This program combines the strengths of a liberal arts education in a small college setting with professional preparation at highly regarded schools of engineering. It is preparation for a career in industry or graduate work in engineering, mathematics, or the physical sciences.

Through junior year, students study at the University of Redlands and complete the general education requirements appropriate for a B.S. student, their major, and pre-engineering requirements. Early second semester of their junior year, they apply for admission to either Washington University’s or Columbia University’s School of Engineering–admission to Columbia is guaranteed, provided they fulfill the requirements outlined below. For the next two years, students study at one of these schools of engineering. Upon successful completion of the program at the end of five years, students are awarded a double degree–one from Redlands and the other from either Columbia University’s or Washington University’s School of Engineering and Applied Science. Students are free to pair any University of Redlands undergraduate major with any engineering or applied science major, however, the pre-engineering requirements are most compatible with the Physics B.A. or individualized Johnston emphases. See appropriate sections of this Catalog for more information on the Physics and Johnston programs.

Students interested in this program must work closely with the Program Advisor to develop a suitable plan of study. Regardless of whether a student participates in this Combined Degree program the pre-engineering courses, in combination with a science or math undergraduate degree, are good preparation for enrolling in an Engineering graduate program.

Colombia University 
Requirements for Guaranteed Admission to Columbia’s Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science:

1. Full-time enrollment at the University of Redlands or another affiliated school for at least the two years prior to applying.
2. An overall and pre-engineering GPA of 3.3 or higher as calculated by Columbia. Additionally, the minimum grade for each pre-engineering science or math course must be a B (3.0) or greater on the first attempt.
3. Three favorable recommendations: one each from the Program liaison, a math professor, and a science professor.
4. Completion (before entering Columbia) of your Redlands major and general education requirements.
5. Completion (by the end of the semester in which you are applying) of the specific prerequisite courses for your intended major–see below, and consult with the Program Advisor.

Pre-Engineering Courses

I. Foundational
The following pre-engineering courses are required for pursuing all engineering majors at Columbia. Please note: students may choose between MATH 121 or MATH 118 and MATH 119.

MATH 121 Calculus I (4 Credits)

Functions and their graphs; successive approximation and limits; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations. 
Prerequisite: Permission based on Mathematics Placement Exam. 

MATH 118 Integrated Calculus I (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 002L or Math Placement at MATH 118 level or by permission.

MATH 119 Integrated Calculus II (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 118 or by permission.

MATH 122 Calculus II (4 Credits)

Riemann sums and the definite integral; techniques of integration and application of integrals; introduction to differential equation; sequences and series. 
Prerequisite: MATH 121 or MATH 119 or by permission.

MATH 221 Calculus III (4 Credits)

Topics in multivariable calculus related to differentiation and integration. Sequences, series, and Taylor approximations. 
Prerequisite: MATH 122 or by permission.

PHYS 231 General Physics I (4 Credits)

Quantitative study of classical Newtonian mechanics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. 
Prerequisite: MATH 119, MATH 121, MATH 122 or MATH 221.

PHYS 232 General Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to classical electricity and magnetism. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 231; Pre- or corequisite: MATH 122 or MATH 221.

PHYS 233 General Physics III (4 Credits)

Introduction to geometric optics, wave optics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. 
Prerequisite: PHYS 231–232 or instructor’s permission. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 221.

CHEM 131 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: Placement into MATH 118 or higher or prerequisite or corequisite of MATH 002L or MATH 111 higher math course or permission of chemistry department.
Corequisite: CHEM 131L.

CS 110 Introduction to Programming (4 Credits)

Introduction to problem-solving methods and algorithm development through the use of computer programming in the C++/Java language. Emphasis on data and algorithm representation. Topics include declarations, arrays, strings, structs, unions, expressions, statements, functions, and input/output processing.

ECON 101 Principles of Economics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of economic systems from a micro and macro perspective. The course includes economic principles underlying the process of consumption, production, and distribution in a market-oriented economy (microeconomics), and the structure, operation, measures, and major theoretical models of the whole economy (macroeconomics).

II. Major-specific
In addition to the Foundational Pre-Engineering Courses, students must take courses specific to their engineering major of choice. Possible Columbia majors and numbers of courses required are listed below; consult with the Program Advisor for details.
•Applied Math or Applied Physics (1 course)
•Biomedical Engineering (3 to 4 courses)
•Chemical Engineering (3 courses)
•Civil Engineering (3 to 4 courses)
•Computer Engineering (3 to 4 courses)
•Computer Science (2 courses)
•Earth and Environmental Engineering (6 to 7 courses)
•Electrical Engineering (2 to 3 courses)
•Engineering Management Systems (4 to 5 courses)
•Industrial Engineering / Operations Research (4 to 5 courses)
•Engineering Mechanics (1 to 2 courses)
•Material Science and Engineering (2 courses)
•Mechanical Engineering (3 to 4 courses)

Washington University at St. Louis
Requirements for Application to Washington University’s School of Engineering and Applied Science:
1. An overall and pre-engineering GPA of 3.25 or higher.
2. Completion (before entering Washington) of your Redlands major and general education requirements.
3. Completion (by the end of the semester in which you are applying) of the specific prerequisite courses for your intended engineering major–see below and consult with the Program Advisor.

Pre-Engineering Courses

I. Foundational

The following pre-engineering courses are required for pursuing all engineering majors at Washington. Please note: students may choose between MATH 121 or MATH 118 and 119. 

MATH 121 Calculus I (4 Credits)

Functions and their graphs; successive approximation and limits; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations. 
Prerequisite: Permission based on Mathematics Placement Exam. 

MATH 118 Integrated Calculus I (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 002L or Math Placement at MATH 118 level or by permission.

MATH 119 Integrated Calculus II (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 118 or by permission.

MATH 122 Calculus II (4 Credits)

Riemann sums and the definite integral; techniques of integration and application of integrals; introduction to differential equation; sequences and series. 
Prerequisite: MATH 121 or MATH 119 or by permission.

MATH 221 Calculus III (4 Credits)

Topics in multivariable calculus related to differentiation and integration. Sequences, series, and Taylor approximations. 
Prerequisite: MATH 122 or by permission.

MATH 235 Differential Equations (4 Credits)

Differential equations theory and applications. First-order linear and nonlinear differential equations with analytic and numerical techniques. Higher-order linear differential equations and complex algebra. Phase trajectory and stability analysis. Systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Matrix methods, Gauss-Jordan, and iterative techniques. 
Prerequisite: MATH 221.

PHYS 231 General Physics I (4 Credits)

Quantitative study of classical Newtonian mechanics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. 
Prerequisite: MATH 119, MATH 121, MATH 122 or MATH 221.

PHYS 232 General Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to classical electricity and magnetism. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 231; Pre- or corequisite: MATH 122 or MATH 221.

PHYS 233 General Physics III (4 Credits)

Introduction to geometric optics, wave optics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. 
Prerequisite: PHYS 231–232 or instructor’s permission. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 221.

CS 110 Introduction to Programming (4 Credits)

Introduction to problem-solving methods and algorithm development through the use of computer programming in the C++/Java language. Emphasis on data and algorithm representation. Topics include declarations, arrays, strings, structs, unions, expressions, statements, functions, and input/output processing.

II. Major-specific
In addition to the Foundational Pre-Engineering Courses, students must take courses specific to their engineering major of choice. Possible Washington majors and numbers of courses required are listed below; consult with the Program Advisor for details.
• Biomedical Engineering (3 courses)
• Chemical Engineering (3-4 courses)
• Computer Science & Computer Engineering (1 course)
• Electrical Engineering (0 additional courses)
• Mechanical Engineering (0 additional courses)
• Systems Science & Engineering (0 additional courses)