Human-Animal Studies

The Program Director 
Kathie Jenni, Philosophy

The Faculty Advisory Committee
Wendy McIntyre, Environmental Studies
Catherine Salmon, Psychology
Lei Lani Stelle, Biology

The Field of Study 
Human-Animal Studies (HAST) is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field devoted to examining and critically evaluating the relationships between humans and nonhuman animals: historical or contemporary, factual or fictional, real or symbolic, beneficial or detrimental. In exploring these relationships, we acquire a greater understanding of the ways in which animals figure in our lives and we in theirs. As our understanding of ecology and the fundamental interconnectedness of all living beings continues to grow, the importance of studying human-animal interactions becomes ever more evident.

All students with an interest in the interactions between humans and animals are encouraged to consider a Human-Animal Studies minor. This minor will have an especially practical use for students pursuing careers related to wild or domesticated animals in zoos, shelters, refuges, wildlife rehabilitation centers, laboratory science, veterinary medicine, conservation programs, or other settings.

Advising 
Students pursuing the minor must select a minor advisor as early as possible, and no later than when they declare the minor, to help them plan a coherent and balanced course of study. The minor advisor may be a member of the HAST Faculty Advisory Committee or any faculty member teaching a course in the HAST minor curriculum. Students should meet with the minor advisor at least once each semester, and the student and advisor should maintain regular contact with the HAST Advisory Committee to ensure a rich interdisciplinary experience. Since many of the courses in the minor have prerequisites, early planning is important.

The Minor 
The minor in HAST consists of six (3 or 4 credit) courses: two foundation courses, three electives, and a practicum.

Foundation Courses (2 courses/ 8 credits)

Please note: students will choose one PHIL course listed below and one additional from the following:   

PHIL 212 Humans and Other Animals (4 Credits)

Study of relations between humans and other animals, both empirical and ethical. Topics include the nature of animal minds, theories of animal ethics, animals as food, animal experimentation, hunting and fishing, zoos and aquariums. Films, guest speakers, and readings from classical and contemporary sources. 
Offered in alternate years.

PHIL 213 Animal Ethics and Policy (4 Credits)

Study of animal ethics and the evolution of animal welfare policy since the Animal Welfare Act of 1966. Examines in substantial depth competing moral arguments and related policy developments in the arenas of companion animal treatment, farmed animal welfare, animal research, and broader theories. Numeric and Evaluation grade only.
Offered as needed.

PHIL 211 Environmental Ethics (4 Credits)

Examination of ethical issues about the environment: foundational questions about moral status, public policy issues, and questions of personal morality. Traditional perspectives such as anthropocentrism and individualism are contrasted with alternatives such as the Land Ethic and ecofeminism. 
Offered in alternate years.

BIOL 331 Ecology (4 Credits)

Analysis of the biotic and abiotic factors controlling the distribution and abundance of plant and animal species. Emphasis on ecological relationships of individuals and populations. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 (or BIOL 133). 
Offered in alternate years.

BIOL 340 Conservation Biology (4 Credits)

Analysis of the ecology, population biology, and behavior that is needed to understand the process of extinction. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or EVST 100 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133). 
Offered as needed.

EVST 230 Biodiversity (4 Credits)

Examination of global and local biodiversity and the causes and implications of biodiversity decline. Emphasis on threatened and endangered species and human activities related to the decline of species. This course is field-trip and project intensive. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.

EVST 305 Ecology for Environmental Scientists (4 Credits)

Exploration of environmental factors responsible for distributions of species, communities, and biomes with particular reference to human-induced changes in ecology. This is a writing-intensive course with emphasis on scientific writing and the use of the scientific method in ecological research. 
Prerequisites: EVST 100 and a WA course. 
Offered every year.

BIOL 352 Animal Behavior (4 Credits)

Evolution of social behavior, with an emphasis on the ecological factors that mold species’ social organization. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 (or BIOL 133). 
Offered as needed.

PSYC 350 Evolutionary Psychology (4 Credits)

The evolution of social behavior is the primary focus of this course. The first few weeks will be devoted to the study of evolutionary theory as it applies to behavior. We will cover parental care, parent-offspring conflict, sexual selection, sex differences, sexuality, altruism, and cooperation.
Prerequisite: PSYC 100 or by permission.

Elective Courses (3 courses/ 10–12 credits)

The three electives may be selected from the following courses, with the requirements that (a) at least one course must be selected from the sciences and one from the humanities, (b) at least three disciplinary areas must be represented in the minor, and (c) no elective may duplicate a foundational course. One elective may be satisfied through a directed study in a HAST-related topic, subject to approval by the HAST Advisory Committee. No more than two courses in the minor may count toward the biology, environmental studies, or philosophy major.

Elective Science Courses

Please note: students may take BIOL 331, BIOL 340, EVST 230, EVST 305, PSYC 350, or BIOL 352. If one in this cluster is taken as a foundational course, none of the other(s) may count as an elective. EVST 240 and EVST 300 are assumed HAST-related topics

 

BIOL 103 Issues and Techniques in Genetic Engineering (3-4 Credits)

Explanation of current developments in modern molecular biology that affect the lives of non-scientists. Topics such as DNA testing and genetically engineered foods, vaccines, and drugs are discussed. Provides basic information about DNA and an opportunity to perform techniques used in genetic engineering. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 109 Contemporary Issues in Ecology (4 Credits)

Environmentally oriented issues of current concern as they relate to fundamental generalizations about ecology. Sharpens the layman’s critical powers of observation and analysis and provides tools for intelligent decision making. Three hours lecture and three hours lab.
Offered as needed.

BIOL 331 Ecology (4 Credits)

Analysis of the biotic and abiotic factors controlling the distribution and abundance of plant and animal species. Emphasis on ecological relationships of individuals and populations. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 (or BIOL 133). 
Offered in alternate years.

BIOL 340 Conservation Biology (4 Credits)

Analysis of the ecology, population biology, and behavior that is needed to understand the process of extinction. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or EVST 100 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133). 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 352 Animal Behavior (4 Credits)

Evolution of social behavior, with an emphasis on the ecological factors that mold species’ social organization. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 (or BIOL 133). 
Offered as needed.

EVST 230 Biodiversity (4 Credits)

Examination of global and local biodiversity and the causes and implications of biodiversity decline. Emphasis on threatened and endangered species and human activities related to the decline of species. This course is field-trip and project intensive. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.

EVST 305 Ecology for Environmental Scientists (4 Credits)

Exploration of environmental factors responsible for distributions of species, communities, and biomes with particular reference to human-induced changes in ecology. This is a writing-intensive course with emphasis on scientific writing and the use of the scientific method in ecological research. 
Prerequisites: EVST 100 and a WA course. 
Offered every year.

EVST 240 Global Environment (4 Credits)

Analysis of selected problems of global environmental systems, including climate change, ozone depletion, oceanic pollution, and trans-boundary biodiversity issues. Emphasis on the conversion of environmental science into international law and policy. Examines the roles of international organizations, governments, industry, and trade in the effort to achieve sustainable development.
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.
Offered in alternate years.

EVST 242 Food and Nature (4 Credits)

Examines the ways production, trade, and consumption of food affects workers, consumers, and ecosystems. Topics include the political economy of food systems, genetically modified food, biofuels, the carbon footprints, the modern meat system, and potential solutions such as fair trade, organic certification, the slow food movement, and local food. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 recommended.

EVST 245 Marine Environmental Studies (4 Credits)

Overview of human environmental influence on the oceans. Combines the study of marine science, policy, and management in an effort to understand environmental protection issues arising from coastal development, overfishing, climate change, oil spills, and other threats to marine ecosystems. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

EVST 255 Ornithology (4 Credits)

Provides a comprehensive overview of the science and field study of birds, ranging from their origin and evolution, physiology, anatomy, communication, behavior and environment, reproduction and development, population dynamics and conservation. Laboratories introduce students to auditory and field identification methods. 
Offered in alternate years.

EVST 275 Conservation in Practice (4 Credits)

Analyzes the different factors–cultural, socioeconomic, political, and biological–that underlie environmental problems. It reviews some of the most important conservation tools developed and applied by various disciplines in an attempt to integrate them as a trans-disciplinary approach.
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.
Offered as needed.

EVST 300 Environmental World Views (4 Credits)

Interdisciplinary investigation of competing environmental perspectives and paradigms. Emphasis on implications for environmental science, policy, management, and ethics as influenced by worldviews. Students compare and contrast diverse environmental perspectives, strategic approaches, and decision-making processes with an eye to conflicting paradigms that underlie environmental controversies.

PSYC 350 Evolutionary Psychology (4 Credits)

The evolution of social behavior is the primary focus of this course. The first few weeks will be devoted to the study of evolutionary theory as it applies to behavior. We will cover parental care, parent-offspring conflict, sexual selection, sex differences, sexuality, altruism, and cooperation.
Prerequisite: PSYC 100 or by permission.

Elective Humanities Courses

Please note: PHIL 110 and PHIL 160 are assumed HAST-related topics. 

 

ENGL 161 Studies in Literature (3-4 Credits)

Selected topics, themes, or authors in literary fields. May be repeated for degree credit, given different topics, for a maximum of 8 credits.
Offered as needed.

EVST 215 American Environmental Literature (4 Credits)

Investigation of the ways in which American experience with nature is both shaped by and reflected through literary fiction and non-fiction as well as poetry. 
Numeric grade only.

EVST 315 Environmental Nonfiction (4 Credits)

This course prepares students to write nontechnical essays, reports, and articles on environmental topics and in various forms, including documentary, lyric, advocacy/public engagement, and experimental. Students read and discuss published nonfiction, write drafts and a final portfolio, and participate in group critiques.

PHIL 110 Contemporary Moral Issues (4 Credits)

Examination of competing ethical and social-political theories in the context of current ethical controversies.

PHIL 160 Introductory Topics in Philosophy (3-4 Credits)

Study of selected topics, movements, authors, or works in philosophy chosen to reflect student interest and instructor availability. May be repeated for degree credit, given different topics, for a maximum of 8 credits. 
Offered as needed.

PHIL 260 Topics in Philosophy (4 Credits)

Study of selected topics, movements, authors, or works in philosophy, chosen to reflect student and instructor interest.

PHIL 211 Environmental Ethics (4 Credits)

Examination of ethical issues about the environment: foundational questions about moral status, public policy issues, and questions of personal morality. Traditional perspectives such as anthropocentrism and individualism are contrasted with alternatives such as the Land Ethic and ecofeminism. 
Offered in alternate years.

The Practicum (1 course/ 3–4 credits)
Students must complete a practicum (3–4 credits), ideally undertaken after the completion of other HAST coursework in the spirit of a capstone. The practicum may take the form of any experiential project involving animals that is overseen by Redlands faculty and approved by the Advisory Committee.

Thus, for example, one may fulfill the practicum through completion of:

PHIL 121 Animal Ethics and Service (3 Credits)

An animal ethics course combined with hands-on work at local animal rescues. A course-fee of $150 applies; instructor permission is required.
Credit and Evaluation grade only.

• Any course with Redlands faculty that involves experiential learning involving animals
• Community Service Learning activities conjoined with HAST faculty oversight in the form of a directed study
• Fieldwork via Environmental Study Abroad programs conjoined with HAST faculty oversight
• An internship in a HAST-related organization with HAST faculty oversight in the form of a directed study.

Completion of a critical written reflection on the practicum (10–15 pages) integrating insights from three disciplinary areas within the minor is required for completion of the practicum requirement. The instructor overseeing the practicum will supervise completion of the reflection, in consultation with the Advisory Committee, with the aim of ensuring application and integration of learning from at least three disciplinary areas.

Negotiable Courses
Appropriate additional courses and directed studies from a variety of departments may be counted toward the HAST minor. To be eligible, a course must include significant attention to Human-Animal relationships and offer the opportunity to focus a research paper or project on related issues.

Students should discuss the potential of a course counting toward the minor with the instructor as early as possible (ideally, before the course has begun) and negotiate special assignments or projects in consultation with the instructor and the HAST Advisory Committee early in the semester. Negotiable courses must be approved by the Advisory Committee for credit toward the minor.