Chemistry 

The Faculty 
J. Henry Acquaye
Michael J. Ferracane
Teresa L. Longin
Rebecca A. Lyons
Barbara Murray
David P. Schrum
David P. Soulsby
Debra L. Van Engelen
Daniel B. Wacks

The Majors
Learning outcomes for this program may be found www.redlands.edu/BS-CHEM/learningoutcomes.

Bachelor of Science (18 courses/ 46 credits)

Please note the core courses include one additional 3 or 4 credit course numbered above 300. 

CHEM 131 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: Placement into MATH 118 or higher or prerequisite or corequisite of MATH 002L or MATH 111 higher math course or permission of chemistry department.
Corequisite: CHEM 131L.

CHEM 132 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 with a minimum grade of 2.0 or higher or by permission.

CHEM 231 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 231: Grade of 2.0 or higher in CHEM 132.

CHEM 232 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 232: CHEM 231.

CHEM 330 Analytical Chemistry (4 Credits)

Principles of analytical chemistry with emphasis on precise measurements and instrumental methods, including molecular and atomic absorption spectrometry, potentiometric and electrolytic methods, separation techniques, chromatography, mass spectrometry, and other specialized instrumental techniques. Experimental design, sampling, and error reduction are studied along with statistical methods of evaluating uncertainty in laboratory results. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 231 and one course from MATH119, MATH 121, MATH 122, OR MATH 221.

CHEM 331 Physical Chemistry I (4 Credits)

Quantum chemistry, spectroscopy, and statistical thermodynamics applied to the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter. The laboratory involves the systematic study of the theory and practice of modern spectroscopic methods. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 122 or higher math course and PHYS 220 or higher physics course or by permission. 

CHEM 332 Physical Chemistry II (4 Credits)

Equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics applied to the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter. CHEM 331 need not be taken before CHEM 332. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 122 or higher math course and PHYS 220 or higher physics course or by permission. 

CHEM 445 Inorganic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Focus on understanding the fundamental concepts of transition metal chemistry, the main group elements, and bio-inorganic chemistry. Emphasis on bonding, structures, synthesis, and reactivity. Four hours lecture. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 232. 
Numeric grade only.

Capstone Courses

CHEM 378 Chemistry Research (1-4 Credits)

Chemistry majors are required to complete 1–3 credits of research for graduation, depending upon their selection of an option for the major and agreement with their research advisor. 
Prerequisite: by permission. 
Credit/no credit only.

CHEM 394 Chemistry Seminar (1 Credits)

Required of majors during fall and spring of junior year and spring of senior year. Activities include seminars by visiting speakers and discussions of current research. Juniors prepare a seminar on their proposed senior research and seniors prepare a seminar on their research. 

CHEM 431 Advanced Laboratory (2 Credits)

Integrated project-oriented lab, including computational chemistry; synthesis; characterization; reactivity studies; kinetics; thermodynamics and photochemistry; and the use of instrumental techniques such as ion chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, UV-visible, infrared, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemical methods. As part of this course, students will take the Major Field Test, a comprehensive examination that covers analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry. Six hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: senior standing, CHEM 330, CHEM 332 or by permission. 
Numeric grade only.

CHEM 476 Senior Research and Capstone Report (1 Credits)

This course is required as part of the capstone requirement for the BS in chemistry and taken as the last semester of the capstone research project. The student completes his or her research, writes a capstone research report on the project, and presents a seminar during the Chemistry Seminar. All aspects of the student’s capstone project must be acceptable to the research mentor(s) for the student and the Chemistry Department. 
Prerequisite: by permission and at least 1 credit of CHEM 378.

CHEM 478 Senior Research and Thesis (1 Credits)

This course is taken in a student’s final semester of the capstone research project for the BS with ACS certification or BS with Honors. The student completes his or her research, writes a thesis on the project, and presents a seminar during Chemistry Seminar. The research mentor for the student evaluates him or her on research effort and progress, the capstone research report or honors thesis, and any presentations the student has given. 
Prerequisites: by permission and at least 2 credits of CHEM 378. 
Evaluation grade only.

CHEM 494 Communication in Chemistry (3 Credits)

This course focuses on important concepts in effective written and oral communication in chemistry. Student will write multiple drafts of the introduction to their capstone report and review the work of their peers. Students will receive instruction in effective presentation techniques and give two presentations with feedback. 
Prerequisite: senior standing and at least one credit of CHEM 378 (can be co-requisite).

Please note that CHEM 378 is taken for the BS in Chemistry major. Students must register for at least 1 credit of CHEM 378 no later than the May Term of the junior year. For CHEM 394, three semesters must be taken. CHEM 476 is taken for the BS in chemistry major but CHEM 478 can also be taken, typically in the spring of the senior year. 

Related Field Requirements (4 courses/ 16 credits)

Please note that students may choose one from PHYS 220 and PHYS 221 or PHYS 231 and PHYS 232. 

MATH 119 Integrated Calculus II (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 118 or by permission.

MATH 122 Calculus II (4 Credits)

Riemann sums and the definite integral; techniques of integration and application of integrals; introduction to differential equation; sequences and series. 
Prerequisite: MATH 121 or MATH 119 or by permission.

PHYS 220 Fundamentals of Physics I (4 Credits)

Introduction to Newtonian mechanics, fluids, and thermodynamics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. Expects competency in high school algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.

PHYS 221 Fundamentals of Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to oscillations, waves, electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 220.

PHYS 231 General Physics I (4 Credits)

Quantitative study of classical Newtonian mechanics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. 
Prerequisite: MATH 119, MATH 121, MATH 122 or MATH 221.

PHYS 232 General Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to classical electricity and magnetism. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 231; Pre- or corequisite: MATH 122 or MATH 221.

Recommended

MATH 221 Calculus III (4 Credits)

Topics in multivariable calculus related to differentiation and integration. Sequences, series, and Taylor approximations. 
Prerequisite: MATH 122 or by permission.

MATH 235 Differential Equations (4 Credits)

Differential equations theory and applications. First-order linear and nonlinear differential equations with analytic and numerical techniques. Higher-order linear differential equations and complex algebra. Phase trajectory and stability analysis. Systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Matrix methods, Gauss-Jordan, and iterative techniques. 
Prerequisite: MATH 221.

MATH 241 Linear Algebra (4 Credits)

Study of vector spaces. Topics include systems of linear equations, matrices, the geometry of vectors, vector spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, determinants, and selected applications. 
Prerequisite: MATH 221.

PHYS 233 General Physics III (4 Credits)

Introduction to geometric optics, wave optics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. 
Prerequisite: PHYS 231–232 or instructor’s permission. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 221.

The ACS-Approved Major
The Chemistry Department is accredited by the American Chemical Society (ACS). To be certified as having met the requirements for professional training in chemistry established by the Committee for Professional Training of the ACS, a student must also take CHEM 320, a minimum of three credits of CHEM 378, and 1 credit of CHEM 478 (typically taken in spring of their senior year) in addition to completing all of the Bachelor of Science requirements and related field requirements described earlier.

Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Please see the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology section of this Catalog.

Premedical and Other Health Professions 
Premedical students should refer to the Premed Program description in the Integrated Programs of Study section of this Catalog.

Teaching Credential Subject Matter Program in Chemistry 
Students who wish to be certified to teach science must pass the relevant CSET examination (California Subject Examinations for Teachers). Although many students complete the teacher preparation program, including student teaching, during a fifth year of study, it is possible to blend teacher credential coursework in the School of Education into one’s undergraduate plan. Interested students should meet with an advisor in the School of Education for information regarding certification and the teacher preparation program. Please refer to the School of Education section of this Catalog for further information

Chemistry Minor Programs
Students may not pursue minors in both Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry.

A. Chemistry (6 courses/ 22-24 credits)

Please note that requirements include at least two other courses above 300 totaling at least 6 credits. One of these courses must be a laboratory course.

CHEM 131 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: Placement into MATH 118 or higher or prerequisite or corequisite of MATH 002L or MATH 111 higher math course or permission of chemistry department.
Corequisite: CHEM 131L.

CHEM 132 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 with a minimum grade of 2.0 or higher or by permission.

CHEM 231 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 231: Grade of 2.0 or higher in CHEM 132.

CHEM 232 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 232: CHEM 231.

Acceptable laboratory courses include:

CHEM 301 Quantitative Chemistry and Analysis (4 Credits)

Equilibrium and detailed acid-base chemistry specifically designed with applications in biology, clinical chemistry, or environmental analysis. Laboratory experience covers sample preparation, titrations, statistical analysis, and an overview of instrumental methods used in these applied fields, including molecular UV/ Vis and atomic absorbance spectroscopy, fluorometry, ion electrodes, gas and liquid chromatography, and electrophoresis. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and college algebra, or equivalent.
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only.

CHEM 312 Advanced Environmental Chemistry (4 Credits)

This course investigates environmental chemistry of local air, water, and soil systems, combined with mapping so that spatial trends can be observed. Global issues are also considered, allowing this knowledge base to be applied in multiple settings. Laboratory and fieldwork heavily based on EPA methods of sampling and chemical analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232, by permission only. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 320 Biochemistry (4 Credits)

Study of the structure and function of biological molecules (including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids), enzymes, and metabolic pathways. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or by permission.

CHEM 330 Analytical Chemistry (4 Credits)

Principles of analytical chemistry with emphasis on precise measurements and instrumental methods, including molecular and atomic absorption spectrometry, potentiometric and electrolytic methods, separation techniques, chromatography, mass spectrometry, and other specialized instrumental techniques. Experimental design, sampling, and error reduction are studied along with statistical methods of evaluating uncertainty in laboratory results. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 231 and one course from MATH119, MATH 121, MATH 122, OR MATH 221.

CHEM 331 Physical Chemistry I (4 Credits)

Quantum chemistry, spectroscopy, and statistical thermodynamics applied to the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter. The laboratory involves the systematic study of the theory and practice of modern spectroscopic methods. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 122 or higher math course and PHYS 220 or higher physics course or by permission. 

CHEM 311 Environmental Chemistry Field Experience and Modeling (3 Credits)

Environmental Chemistry Field Experience and Modeling takes place at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL). This course deepens understanding of natural systems, including chemical analysis of lakes, soils, and atmosphere; there is a GIS and mapping component. The final project consists of a comprehensive model of the study site. 
Prerequisite: permission of instructor required.

CHEM 431 Advanced Laboratory (2 Credits)

Integrated project-oriented lab, including computational chemistry; synthesis; characterization; reactivity studies; kinetics; thermodynamics and photochemistry; and the use of instrumental techniques such as ion chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, UV-visible, infrared, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemical methods. As part of this course, students will take the Major Field Test, a comprehensive examination that covers analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry. Six hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: senior standing, CHEM 330, CHEM 332 or by permission. 
Numeric grade only.

Acceptable non-laboratory courses include:

CHEM 332 Physical Chemistry II (4 Credits)

Equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics applied to the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter. CHEM 331 need not be taken before CHEM 332. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 122 or higher math course and PHYS 220 or higher physics course or by permission. 

CHEM 420 Advanced Biochemistry (4 Credits)

In-depth study of biochemical topics. Specific focus will vary and may range from bioorganic chemistry to the biochemistry of processes taking place at the level of the whole organism. Three or four hours lecture/seminar. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 320 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 425 Advanced Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Selected topics in organic chemistry, including physical organic chemistry, molecular orbital theory, structural and mechanistic relationships, and computational chemistry. Three hours lecture. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 445 Inorganic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Focus on understanding the fundamental concepts of transition metal chemistry, the main group elements, and bio-inorganic chemistry. Emphasis on bonding, structures, synthesis, and reactivity. Four hours lecture. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 232. 
Numeric grade only.

B. Mathematics (4 credits)

Please note that Mathematics course higher than MATH 119 can also be taken. 

MATH 119 Integrated Calculus II (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 118 or by permission.

Interdisciplinary Minor in Environmental Chemistry Requirements 

A. Core Courses (4 courses/ 16 credits)

EVST 100 Introduction to Environmental Studies (4 Credits)

Overview of the major causes and consequences of pollution, natural resource depletion, and loss of biological diversity. The primary objective is to develop an interdisciplinary understanding of our natural environment, the human impacts that degrade it, and the measures we can take to protect and restore environmental quality.

CHEM 131 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: Placement into MATH 118 or higher or prerequisite or corequisite of MATH 002L or MATH 111 higher math course or permission of chemistry department.
Corequisite: CHEM 131L.

CHEM 132 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 with a minimum grade of 2.0 or higher or by permission.

CHEM 231 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 231: Grade of 2.0 or higher in CHEM 132.

B. Environmental Systems (2 courses/ 7-8 credits)

Each of the courses includes a laboratory or fieldwork component. Select one each from Chemistry and Environmental Studies:

CHEM 312 Advanced Environmental Chemistry (4 Credits)

This course investigates environmental chemistry of local air, water, and soil systems, combined with mapping so that spatial trends can be observed. Global issues are also considered, allowing this knowledge base to be applied in multiple settings. Laboratory and fieldwork heavily based on EPA methods of sampling and chemical analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232, by permission only. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 311 Environmental Chemistry Field Experience and Modeling (3 Credits)

Environmental Chemistry Field Experience and Modeling takes place at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL). This course deepens understanding of natural systems, including chemical analysis of lakes, soils, and atmosphere; there is a GIS and mapping component. The final project consists of a comprehensive model of the study site. 
Prerequisite: permission of instructor required.

CHEM 330 Analytical Chemistry (4 Credits)

Principles of analytical chemistry with emphasis on precise measurements and instrumental methods, including molecular and atomic absorption spectrometry, potentiometric and electrolytic methods, separation techniques, chromatography, mass spectrometry, and other specialized instrumental techniques. Experimental design, sampling, and error reduction are studied along with statistical methods of evaluating uncertainty in laboratory results. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 231 and one course from MATH119, MATH 121, MATH 122, OR MATH 221.

CHEM 301 Quantitative Chemistry and Analysis (4 Credits)

Equilibrium and detailed acid-base chemistry specifically designed with applications in biology, clinical chemistry, or environmental analysis. Laboratory experience covers sample preparation, titrations, statistical analysis, and an overview of instrumental methods used in these applied fields, including molecular UV/ Vis and atomic absorbance spectroscopy, fluorometry, ion electrodes, gas and liquid chromatography, and electrophoresis. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and college algebra, or equivalent.
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only.

EVST 290 Environmental Geology (4 Credits)

This course investigates how critical events in Earth history have shaped the landscape that we see today. Main topics include mountain building, volcanoes, faulting, glaciers, oceans and coastlines, energy resources, the geology of Southern California, and global climate change. Course includes a weekly lab/field component. 
Prerequisites: EVST 100 and MATH 101 or higher, or by permission.

EVST 391 Environmental Hydrology (4 Credits)

This course examines the ways that water has shaped our planet by exploring the following topics: hydrologic cycling, spatiotemporal patterns of water distribution and scarcity, water quality and pollution, groundwater and stream flow, and the challenges surrounding water resource allocation. Course includes a weekly lab/field component with off-campus field trips. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 and MATH 101 or higher, or by permission.

EVST 220 Physical Geography (4 Credits)

Exploration of the physical geography of Earth by examination of lithospheric, atmospheric, hydrological, and biological processes. Laboratory includes field methods, topographic map reading, and in-depth discussion of these principles. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission.

EVST 392 Oceanography (4 Credits)

In this course, we will examine the oceans from four different perspectives; the geological, chemical, physical, and biological. Select course topics include California beach erosion, coral reefs and atolls, black smokers, thermohaline circulation, the El Niño Southern Oscillation, wave formation, and red tides. 
Numeric grade only.
Prerequisite: EVST 100. 
Offered as needed.

EVST 305 Ecology for Environmental Scientists (4 Credits)

Exploration of environmental factors responsible for distributions of species, communities, and biomes with particular reference to human-induced changes in ecology. This is a writing-intensive course with emphasis on scientific writing and the use of the scientific method in ecological research. 
Prerequisites: EVST 100 and a WA course. 
Offered every year.

C. Elective (1 course/ 4 credits)

Select one additional course from the list below:

CHEM 332 Physical Chemistry II (4 Credits)

Equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics applied to the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter. CHEM 331 need not be taken before CHEM 332. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 122 or higher math course and PHYS 220 or higher physics course or by permission. 

CHEM 445 Inorganic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Focus on understanding the fundamental concepts of transition metal chemistry, the main group elements, and bio-inorganic chemistry. Emphasis on bonding, structures, synthesis, and reactivity. Four hours lecture. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 232. 
Numeric grade only.

CHEM 320 Biochemistry (4 Credits)

Study of the structure and function of biological molecules (including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids), enzymes, and metabolic pathways. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or by permission.

EVST 245 Marine Environmental Studies (4 Credits)

Overview of human environmental influence on the oceans. Combines the study of marine science, policy, and management in an effort to understand environmental protection issues arising from coastal development, overfishing, climate change, oil spills, and other threats to marine ecosystems. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

EVST 254 Climate Disruption: Science and Sustainability (4 Credits)

Examines dilemmas in climate science, politics, economics, and ethics—all with an eye to the implications for global and regional sustainability. Emphasis is placed on solutions and practices to minimize or adapt to climate impacts, ranging from green innovations in energy technology to climate-friendly changes in human values and behavior. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 recommended. 
Numeric grade only.

EVST 242 Food and Nature (4 Credits)

Examines the ways production, trade, and consumption of food affects workers, consumers, and ecosystems. Topics include the political economy of food systems, genetically modified food, biofuels, the carbon footprints, the modern meat system, and potential solutions such as fair trade, organic certification, the slow food movement, and local food. 
Prerequisite: EVST 100 recommended.

BIOL 336 Botany (4 Credits)

Comprehensive exploration of plants from cellular to organismal level. Topics include anatomy, morphology, fundamentals of physiology, and systematics. Lab work and fieldwork are stressed. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 200 or EVST 100 (or BIOL 131). 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 340 Conservation Biology (4 Credits)

Analysis of the ecology, population biology, and behavior that is needed to understand the process of extinction. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or EVST 100 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133). 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 331 Ecology (4 Credits)

Analysis of the biotic and abiotic factors controlling the distribution and abundance of plant and animal species. Emphasis on ecological relationships of individuals and populations. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 (or BIOL 133). 
Offered in alternate years.

BIOL 346 Aquatic Biology (3 Credits)

Ecology, ecological physiology, and natural history of selected aquatic organisms. Biology of rivers, lakes, and the marine intertidal and subtidal zones. Introduction to physical oceanography, limnology, and potamology. Implications for water pollution control, water resource development, and water-related human activities. Field trips. Two hours lecture and six hours laboratory.  
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. 
Offered in alternate years.

MATH 231 Introduction to Modeling (4 Credits)

Investigation of the process of modeling. Special emphasis placed on how to build, test, and refine models; how to analyze assumptions and results; and defining model limitations. Deterministic and stochastic models, rate equations and population dynamics, and statistical analysis. Final project tied to outside interests. 
Prerequisite: MATH 119 or MATH 121 or MATH 122 or MATH 221 or by permission.
Cross-listed with EVST.

A third course from the Environmental Systems list may be substituted for the Elective course.

Advanced Placement in Chemistry 
Students who receive a score of four or higher on the Advanced Placement Test or a score of six or higher on the International Baccalaureate may be offered credit for CHEM 131 on the approval of the Chair.

Study Abroad 
Studying chemistry in another country gives a student the opportunity to experience different scientific and cultural viewpoints, as well as providing exposure to a different style of education. It can be a valuable experience, one that develops maturity and greater independence. Most international programs require junior standing and at least a 3.00 GPA. Careful advanced planning is necessary to integrate chemistry courses taken abroad with those taken at Redlands. Consult an academic advisor in the Chemistry Department and contact the Study Abroad Office for advice and information.

Departmental Honors
Every chemistry major must undertake a research project and complete a senior capstone project report or thesis. The Chemistry Department seeks to recognize academic excellence and outstanding achievement in undergraduate research by encouraging chemistry majors with strong academic records to present their senior thesis work for honors in chemistry.

To apply for honors, a student must have a minimum GPA of 3.45 (cumulative or in chemistry), complete the ACS-approved major described above, or complete the program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology with research in chemistry (at the same level as for the ACS-approved major), complete an outstanding written research thesis approved by their faculty advisor and Honors Committee, and pass an oral examination on the thesis.

Research in the Chemistry Department 
The faculty of the Chemistry Department pursue research on a wide variety of projects. Students may choose to conduct research on computational chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry of natural products, synthesis and methodology developments, inorganic chemistry, the physical chemistry of membrane transport processes, development of analytical techniques using capillary electrophoresis, separation and ultra-trace detection of biologically active molecules, detecting and modeling trace pollutants in environmental systems, microbial carbon metabolism, and pharmaceutical chemistry.

Course Descriptions (CHEM)

CHEM 101 Mother Earth Chemistry (3-4 Credits)

Designed for anyone interested in learning the chemistry and practice of simple arts like wine making, beer brewing, cloth dyeing, and the making of soap, cheese, yogurt, and high-protein foods derived from soybeans (such as tofu and tempeh). Emphasis on learning by doing. No background in chemistry is required. Recommended for non-science majors.

Offered as needed.

CHEM 102 Introduction to Chemistry of the Environment (4 Credits)

Introductory course for students wishing to explore the sciences or needing preparation for General Chemistry. Topics in chemistry relevant to the environment such as energy needs, pollution, and pesticides will be discussed. Three hours lecture. No background in chemistry is required. Recommended for non-science majors. 
Numeric grade only.

CHEM 103 Chemistry of Art (3 Credits)

For students interested in exploring the link between chemistry and art. Students investigate topics such as color, light, the photochemistry of photography and fading, the physical and chemical properties of metals and alloys, natural and synthetic dyes, clays, ceramics, authentication of works of art, and conservation of art. Three hours lecture and laboratory. No background in chemistry is required. Recommended for non-majors.
Offered as needed.

CHEM 104 Whodunit! A Course in Forensic Science (4 Credits)

A course in forensic science intended to introduce the student to the role science plays in the criminal investigation process and the criminal justice system. This course will present the techniques, skills, and limitations of the modern crime laboratory for students with no background in the sciences. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 106 Topics in Science and Society (4 Credits)

Study of the nature of scientific investigation and its relationship to societal and individual needs. Specific scientific discoveries, philosophies, and moral theories are discussed. Examination of the interactions of the scientific world communities through the analysis of current controversial areas of research and technology.

CHEM 108 The Science of Drugs (4 Credits)

Introductory course intended to expose students to the action of various drugs and their effects on the body with a focus on achieving a molecular-level understanding of drugs. Drugs such as caffeine, alcohol, and street drugs will be studied. Intended for non-science majors. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 131 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: Placement into MATH 118 or higher or prerequisite or corequisite of MATH 002L or MATH 111 higher math course or permission of chemistry department.
Corequisite: CHEM 131L.

CHEM 132 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 with a minimum grade of 2.0 or higher or by permission.

CHEM 231 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 231: Grade of 2.0 or higher in CHEM 132.

CHEM 232 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 232: CHEM 231.

CHEM 290 Mile High Chemistry: Field Experience in Environmental Chemistry (3 Credits)

This course explores topics in environmental chemistry such nutrient balance, soil chemistry, and air and water quality. There is a strong emphasis placed on field and laboratory techniques. This is a May Term travel course. Course includes additional fees. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 131 or CHEM 102.
Recommended: CHEM 132.

CHEM 301 Quantitative Chemistry and Analysis (4 Credits)

Equilibrium and detailed acid-base chemistry specifically designed with applications in biology, clinical chemistry, or environmental analysis. Laboratory experience covers sample preparation, titrations, statistical analysis, and an overview of instrumental methods used in these applied fields, including molecular UV/ Vis and atomic absorbance spectroscopy, fluorometry, ion electrodes, gas and liquid chromatography, and electrophoresis. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and college algebra, or equivalent.
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only.

CHEM 312 Advanced Environmental Chemistry (4 Credits)

This course investigates environmental chemistry of local air, water, and soil systems, combined with mapping so that spatial trends can be observed. Global issues are also considered, allowing this knowledge base to be applied in multiple settings. Laboratory and fieldwork heavily based on EPA methods of sampling and chemical analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232, by permission only. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 320 Biochemistry (4 Credits)

Study of the structure and function of biological molecules (including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids), enzymes, and metabolic pathways. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or by permission.

CHEM 330 Analytical Chemistry (4 Credits)

Principles of analytical chemistry with emphasis on precise measurements and instrumental methods, including molecular and atomic absorption spectrometry, potentiometric and electrolytic methods, separation techniques, chromatography, mass spectrometry, and other specialized instrumental techniques. Experimental design, sampling, and error reduction are studied along with statistical methods of evaluating uncertainty in laboratory results. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 231 and one course from MATH119, MATH 121, MATH 122, OR MATH 221.

CHEM 331 Physical Chemistry I (4 Credits)

Quantum chemistry, spectroscopy, and statistical thermodynamics applied to the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter. The laboratory involves the systematic study of the theory and practice of modern spectroscopic methods. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 122 or higher math course and PHYS 220 or higher physics course or by permission. 

CHEM 332 Physical Chemistry II (4 Credits)

Equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics applied to the study of the physical and chemical properties of matter. CHEM 331 need not be taken before CHEM 332. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and MATH 122 or higher math course and PHYS 220 or higher physics course or by permission. 

CHEM 311 Environmental Chemistry Field Experience and Modeling (3 Credits)

Environmental Chemistry Field Experience and Modeling takes place at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL). This course deepens understanding of natural systems, including chemical analysis of lakes, soils, and atmosphere; there is a GIS and mapping component. The final project consists of a comprehensive model of the study site. 
Prerequisite: permission of instructor required.

CHEM 378 Chemistry Research (1-4 Credits)

Chemistry majors are required to complete 1–3 credits of research for graduation, depending upon their selection of an option for the major and agreement with their research advisor. 
Prerequisite: by permission. 
Credit/no credit only.

CHEM 394 Chemistry Seminar (1 Credits)

Required of majors during fall and spring of junior year and spring of senior year. Activities include seminars by visiting speakers and discussions of current research. Juniors prepare a seminar on their proposed senior research and seniors prepare a seminar on their research. 

CHEM 420 Advanced Biochemistry (4 Credits)

In-depth study of biochemical topics. Specific focus will vary and may range from bioorganic chemistry to the biochemistry of processes taking place at the level of the whole organism. Three or four hours lecture/seminar. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 320 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 425 Advanced Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Selected topics in organic chemistry, including physical organic chemistry, molecular orbital theory, structural and mechanistic relationships, and computational chemistry. Three hours lecture. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

CHEM 431 Advanced Laboratory (2 Credits)

Integrated project-oriented lab, including computational chemistry; synthesis; characterization; reactivity studies; kinetics; thermodynamics and photochemistry; and the use of instrumental techniques such as ion chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, UV-visible, infrared, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemical methods. As part of this course, students will take the Major Field Test, a comprehensive examination that covers analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry. Six hours laboratory. 
Prerequisites: senior standing, CHEM 330, CHEM 332 or by permission. 
Numeric grade only.

CHEM 445 Inorganic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Focus on understanding the fundamental concepts of transition metal chemistry, the main group elements, and bio-inorganic chemistry. Emphasis on bonding, structures, synthesis, and reactivity. Four hours lecture. 
Prerequisites: CHEM 232. 
Numeric grade only.

CHEM 460 Special Topics (1-4 Credits)

Special topics in chemistry studied under the guidance of faculty (4 credit hours lecture) may include the following: advanced analysis, environmental chemistry, surface science and spectroscopy, organometallic chemistry and catalysis, solid-state chemistry, polymers and surfactants in solution, colloids and macromolecules, application of molecular assembly, diffusion, or other approved topics. Prerequisite: by permission. 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only.

CHEM 476 Senior Research and Capstone Report (1 Credits)

This course is required as part of the capstone requirement for the BS in chemistry and taken as the last semester of the capstone research project. The student completes his or her research, writes a capstone research report on the project, and presents a seminar during the Chemistry Seminar. All aspects of the student’s capstone project must be acceptable to the research mentor(s) for the student and the Chemistry Department. 
Prerequisite: by permission and at least 1 credit of CHEM 378.

CHEM 478 Senior Research and Thesis (1 Credits)

This course is taken in a student’s final semester of the capstone research project for the BS with ACS certification or BS with Honors. The student completes his or her research, writes a thesis on the project, and presents a seminar during Chemistry Seminar. The research mentor for the student evaluates him or her on research effort and progress, the capstone research report or honors thesis, and any presentations the student has given. 
Prerequisites: by permission and at least 2 credits of CHEM 378. 
Evaluation grade only.

CHEM 494 Communication in Chemistry (3 Credits)

This course focuses on important concepts in effective written and oral communication in chemistry. Student will write multiple drafts of the introduction to their capstone report and review the work of their peers. Students will receive instruction in effective presentation techniques and give two presentations with feedback. 
Prerequisite: senior standing and at least one credit of CHEM 378 (can be co-requisite).