Biology

The Faculty
Benjamin Aronson
James R. Blauth
Susan L. Blauth
William Casale
Caryl A. Forristall
Candace Glendening
James R. Malcolm
Lisa E. Olson
Bryce Ryan
Linda A. Silveira
Lei Lani Stelle

The Major
There are five categories of courses within the biology curriculum, each designed for different needs. The first group (BIOL 103 through 160) consists of courses for non-majors and may include consideration of scientific methodology as well as subject matter of interest to non-scientists. These courses may not be taken for credit toward the Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts in biology.

The second category (BIOL 200 through BIOL 239) is part of both the major and minor requirements and consists of courses that introduce key aspects of biology.

Courses in the third group (BIOL 250 through BIOL 360) are designed to provide a firm foundation in basic sub-disciplines. By careful selection with a faculty advisor, students can tailor a program to fit individual career goals. Note that only Comparative Physiology (BIOL 334) or Human Physiology (BIOL 344) will count toward the biology degree. Similarly, only Vertebrate Anatomy (BIOL 337) or Human Anatomy (BIOL 317) will count toward the biology degree. Most of the courses in this category have prerequisites and are taken by majors, but non-majors who have the prerequisites often enroll.

The fourth category (BIOL 403 through BIOL 460) provides an opportunity for biology majors to take part in research under faculty supervision. A two-semester sequence is required of all B.S. majors except those taking departmental honors (BIOL 499).

In courses in the fifth category, the biology seminars (BIOL 394, BIOL 495, BIOL 496), junior and senior students learn about careers in biology, research methods, and present and share the results of their research.

Students entering the biology major must have successfully completed BIOL 200 and BIOL 201 or equivalent courses and achieved a major GPA of 2.0 or higher at the time of declaration.

Learning outcomes for this program may be found at www.redlands.edu/BA-BIOL/learning-outcomes.
Learning outcomes for this program may be found at www.redlands.edu/BS-BIOL/learning-outcomes.

Bachelor of Science (40-44 credits)

Please note that the requirements include:
Five additional courses from BIOL 250 – BIOL 360 (except BIOL 341) of which a minimum of three must include a significant laboratory or field component, by contract with department faculty
6 credits of coursework selected from BIOL 403 through BIOL 460, BLCM 460 Advanced Interdisciplinary Research in Biology and Chemistry, or departmental honors project work (BIOL 499)

BIOL 200 Principles of Biology: Unity and Diversity (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of the diversity of living organisms and how organisms meet the challenges faced by all living things. Laboratory work emphasizes quantitative data collection and analysis while introducing students to biological diversity and physiological techniques.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131.

BIOL 201 Principles of Biology II: Molecular/Cellular Biology and Genetics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of life including molecules and biological processes, the structure of cells, and molecular and transmission genetics. Laboratory work emphasizes biochemical and genetic techniques, data collection and analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 or by permission.

BIOL 238 Ecology, Evolution and Behavior (4 Credits)

An introduction to ecology, including populations and their environments. The course will provide an introduction to the study of animal behavior and the topic of conservation. Laboratory work will include field trips to biological communities of Southern California and the collection and analysis of quantitative data.
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and BIOL 201 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133).

BIOL 239 Molecular Genetics and Heredity (4 Credits)

This course emphasizes the importance of molecular genetics in contemporary biology. Patterns of inheritance, gene structure and function, and techniques using recombinant DNA technology will be emphasized. Laboratory includes classical genetic analysis as well as molecular and biochemical techniques. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and 201 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133).

BIOL 394 Junior Seminar (0 Credits)

Recent advances in biology presented in a seminar format by Redlands faculty, seniors, and visiting scholars.
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 495 Senior Seminar (1 Credits)

In the fall, the course covers B.A. capstone and career development. In the spring, seniors present their capstone projects (B.A.), senior research (B.S.), or honors projects. 
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 496 Senior Seminar (1 Credits)

In the fall, the course covers B.A. capstone and career development. In the spring, seniors present their capstone projects (B.A.), senior research (B.S.), or honors projects. 
Credit/no credit only.

Related Field Requirements:

Chemistry (4 courses/ 16 credits)

CHEM 131 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: Placement into MATH 118 or higher or prerequisite or corequisite of MATH 002L or MATH 111 higher math course or permission of chemistry department.
Corequisite: CHEM 131L.

CHEM 132 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 with a minimum grade of 2.0 or higher or by permission.

CHEM 231 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 231: Grade of 2.0 or higher in CHEM 132.

CHEM 232 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 232: CHEM 231.

Mathematics (2 courses/ 8 credits)

Please note that course options include: 
MATH 118 and 119 or MATH 121
And one course from MATH 111, MATH 122, PSYC 250, or POLI 202. 

MATH 118 Integrated Calculus I (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 002L or Math Placement at MATH 118 level or by permission.

MATH 119 Integrated Calculus II (4 Credits)

For students whose programs require calculus but who, based on their background and placement examination scores, are not prepared for MATH 121. Topics from precalculus include properties of linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; and compositions, transformations, and inverses of these functions. Calculus topics include successive approximation and limits of functions; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations.
Prerequisite: MATH 118 or by permission.

MATH 121 Calculus I (4 Credits)

Functions and their graphs; successive approximation and limits; local linearity and differentiation; applications of differentiation to graphing and optimization; and the definite integral, antiderivatives, and differential equations. 
Prerequisite: Permission based on Mathematics Placement Exam. 

MATH 111 Elementary Statistics with Applications (4 Credits)

Descriptive and inferential statistics for students from diverse fields. Distribution, correlation, probability, hypothesis testing, use of tables, and examination of the misuse of statistics and relation of statistics to vital aspects of life. Computer packages used as tools throughout the course.

MATH 122 Calculus II (4 Credits)

Riemann sums and the definite integral; techniques of integration and application of integrals; introduction to differential equation; sequences and series. 
Prerequisite: MATH 121 or MATH 119 or by permission.

PSYC 250 Statistical Methods (4 Credits)

Introduction to the use of descriptive and inferential statistics in the collection of data and the interpretation of research in psychology and education. 
Prerequisite: PSYC 100 or by permission.

POLI 202 Statistical Analysis and Mapping of Social Science Data (4 Credits)

Principles of hypothesis development and testing, strategies for making controlled comparisons, principles of statistical inference, and tests of statistical significance. Development and testing of important research questions using such prominent data sets as the General Social Survey and the National Election Series.

Physics (2 courses/ 8 credits)

Choose one of the following groups:

PHYS 220 Fundamentals of Physics I (4 Credits)

Introduction to Newtonian mechanics, fluids, and thermodynamics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. Expects competency in high school algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.

PHYS 221 Fundamentals of Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to oscillations, waves, electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 220.

Or

PHYS 231 General Physics I (4 Credits)

Quantitative study of classical Newtonian mechanics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. 
Prerequisite: MATH 119, MATH 121, MATH 122 or MATH 221.

PHYS 232 General Physics II (4 Credits)

Introduction to classical electricity and magnetism. Includes lecture and laboratory components.
Prerequisite: PHYS 231; Pre- or corequisite: MATH 122 or MATH 221.

Note: Degree contracts must be approved by the end of the second semester of the junior year or, in the case of upper-division transfer students, the end of the first semester of residence.

Bachelor of Arts
Students who are not planning a research career, and wish to build depth or breadth in other disciplines, may wish to consider the Bachelor of Arts in Biology. This degree can be combined with a minor or second major in another discipline. 

Bachelor of Arts (47-50 credits)

BIOL 200 Principles of Biology: Unity and Diversity (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of the diversity of living organisms and how organisms meet the challenges faced by all living things. Laboratory work emphasizes quantitative data collection and analysis while introducing students to biological diversity and physiological techniques.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131.

BIOL 201 Principles of Biology II: Molecular/Cellular Biology and Genetics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of life including molecules and biological processes, the structure of cells, and molecular and transmission genetics. Laboratory work emphasizes biochemical and genetic techniques, data collection and analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 or by permission.

BIOL 238 Ecology, Evolution and Behavior (4 Credits)

An introduction to ecology, including populations and their environments. The course will provide an introduction to the study of animal behavior and the topic of conservation. Laboratory work will include field trips to biological communities of Southern California and the collection and analysis of quantitative data.
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and BIOL 201 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133).

BIOL 239 Molecular Genetics and Heredity (4 Credits)

This course emphasizes the importance of molecular genetics in contemporary biology. Patterns of inheritance, gene structure and function, and techniques using recombinant DNA technology will be emphasized. Laboratory includes classical genetic analysis as well as molecular and biochemical techniques. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and 201 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133).

CHEM 131 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: Placement into MATH 118 or higher or prerequisite or corequisite of MATH 002L or MATH 111 higher math course or permission of chemistry department.
Corequisite: CHEM 131L.

CHEM 132 General Chemistry (4 Credits)

Introduction to chemistry, including properties, structure, and reactivity of atoms and molecules, with concurrent laboratory. First semester covers fundamental concepts of atomic structure, stoichiometry, aqueous reactions, states of matter, molecular structure and bonding, and thermochemistry. Second semester emphasizes group projects in equilibrium, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, inorganic synthesis, and spectroscopy. Fall: four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Spring: seven hours laboratory and group learning.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 with a minimum grade of 2.0 or higher or by permission.

CHEM 231 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 231: Grade of 2.0 or higher in CHEM 132.

CHEM 232 Organic Chemistry (4 Credits)

Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds; their structure, nomenclature, physical properties, spectroscopy (IR, GC-MS, NMR), stereochemistry, chemical reactivities, mechanisms of reaction, and synthesis. Four hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite for CHEM 232: CHEM 231.

Choose one of the following:

PHYS 220 Fundamentals of Physics I (4 Credits)

Introduction to Newtonian mechanics, fluids, and thermodynamics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. Expects competency in high school algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.

PHYS 231 General Physics I (4 Credits)

Quantitative study of classical Newtonian mechanics. Includes lecture and laboratory components. 
Prerequisite: MATH 119, MATH 121, MATH 122 or MATH 221.

MATH 111 Elementary Statistics with Applications (4 Credits)

Descriptive and inferential statistics for students from diverse fields. Distribution, correlation, probability, hypothesis testing, use of tables, and examination of the misuse of statistics and relation of statistics to vital aspects of life. Computer packages used as tools throughout the course.

PSYC 250 Statistical Methods (4 Credits)

Introduction to the use of descriptive and inferential statistics in the collection of data and the interpretation of research in psychology and education. 
Prerequisite: PSYC 100 or by permission.

POLI 202 Statistical Analysis and Mapping of Social Science Data (4 Credits)

Principles of hypothesis development and testing, strategies for making controlled comparisons, principles of statistical inference, and tests of statistical significance. Development and testing of important research questions using such prominent data sets as the General Social Survey and the National Election Series.

Electives
Three additional courses from BIOL 250 – BIOL 360 (except BIOL 341) of which a minimum of two must include a significant laboratory or field component, by contract with department faculty.

Additional Requirements

Please note that the requirements include completion of Senior Seminar Capstone project. 

BIOL 394 Junior Seminar (0 Credits)

Recent advances in biology presented in a seminar format by Redlands faculty, seniors, and visiting scholars.
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 495 Senior Seminar (1 Credits)

In the fall, the course covers B.A. capstone and career development. In the spring, seniors present their capstone projects (B.A.), senior research (B.S.), or honors projects. 
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 496 Senior Seminar (1 Credits)

In the fall, the course covers B.A. capstone and career development. In the spring, seniors present their capstone projects (B.A.), senior research (B.S.), or honors projects. 
Credit/no credit only.

Note: Degree contracts must be approved by the end of the second semester of the junior year or, in the case of upper-division transfer students, the end of the first semester of residence.

The Minor

Biology Minor (6 courses/ 24 credits)

Please note that the minor requirements include three additional courses from BIOL 238 – BIOL 360 (except BIOL 341) of which a minimum of two must include a significant laboratory or field component, by contract with department faculty.

BIOL 200 Principles of Biology: Unity and Diversity (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of the diversity of living organisms and how organisms meet the challenges faced by all living things. Laboratory work emphasizes quantitative data collection and analysis while introducing students to biological diversity and physiological techniques.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131.

BIOL 201 Principles of Biology II: Molecular/Cellular Biology and Genetics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of life including molecules and biological processes, the structure of cells, and molecular and transmission genetics. Laboratory work emphasizes biochemical and genetic techniques, data collection and analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 or by permission.

BIOL 238 Ecology, Evolution and Behavior (4 Credits)

An introduction to ecology, including populations and their environments. The course will provide an introduction to the study of animal behavior and the topic of conservation. Laboratory work will include field trips to biological communities of Southern California and the collection and analysis of quantitative data.
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and BIOL 201 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133).

Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Please see the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology section of this Catalog.

Premedical and Other Health Professions
Premedical students should refer to the Premed Program description in the Integrated Programs of Study section of this Catalog.

Teaching Credential Subject Matter Program in Biology 
In compliance with federal No Child Left Behind legislation, students who wish to be certified to teach science must major in the subject, as well as pass the relevant CSET (California Subject Examinations for Teachers; previously the SSAT/PRAXIS examination). Students earning a Multiple Subject Credential may add subject matter authorization in biology by completing a minor in biology. Students should meet with an advisor in the School of Education for information regarding certification and the teacher preparation program. Most students complete the teacher preparation program, including student teaching, during their fifth year of study. Please refer to the School of Education section of this Catalog for further information regarding teaching certification requirements.

Advanced Placement in Biology 

  • Students earning a score of three or four on the Advanced Placement (AP) test or a score of five or six on the International Baccalaureate (IB) higher level test receive 4 credits and fulfill the MS1 Liberal Arts Foundation requirement or the NS Liberal Arts Inquiry requirement.
  • Students earning a score of five on the AP or a seven on the IB receive 8 credits and fulfill both the MS1 and MS3 Liberal Arts Foundation requirements or the NS Liberal Arts Inquiry requirement.

Permission to waive the Biology major requirement for BIOL 200 or BIOL 201 may be granted to students with AP scores of four or five or with IB scores of six or seven based on an interview with department faculty.

Departmental Honors
The Department of Biology offers the opportunity for honors research to those outstanding biology majors desiring to undertake substantive original research during their senior year. Application to pursue honors must be made to the Biology Department during the second semester of the junior year. Students selected for honors will carry out, with the guidance of a member of the department faculty or other departmentally approved professional, an empirical research project that includes:

• problems definition and experimental design;
• literature search;
• laboratory or field data collection and analysis;
• preparation of a manuscript suitable for submission to a selected journal;
  a public presentation and defense of the project before an examining
  committee, consisting of members of the department and at least one
  person outside the department.

More specific guidelines regarding format and a timetable for completion of honors projects are available from the Biology Department.

To be awarded honors, students must complete all components of the project as outlined above at a level of academic performance acceptable to the examining committee.

Study Abroad
Students wishing to study abroad for a semester can usually do so by careful scheduling, arranged with the help of their faculty advisors.

Course Descriptions (BIOL)

BIOL 030 Principles of Biology Preparation (1 Credits)

Preparation for Biology 131 for students without strong honors or AP courses in high school. Course includes both a discussion section for general chemistry as well as a preview of the material in principles of biology. 
Corequisite: CHEM 131.

BIOL 103 Issues and Techniques in Genetic Engineering (3-4 Credits)

Explanation of current developments in modern molecular biology that affect the lives of non-scientists. Topics such as DNA testing and genetically engineered foods, vaccines, and drugs are discussed. Provides basic information about DNA and an opportunity to perform techniques used in genetic engineering. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 104 Introduction to Neuroscience (4 Credits)

Emphasis on overriding concepts in understanding how the brain works and the experience of scientific inquiry. Focus on experimental methods, functional anatomy, and neurologic disorders, highlighting what is known about the nervous system. For non-biology majors only. Credit cannot be received for both BIOL 104 and BIOL 326. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 105 The Age of Big Science and Technology (4 Credits)

Study of science and technology rising to become major driving forces in modern life. Analysis of implications. Topics include the atomic bomb, the information age, biotechnology, modern scientific medicine, environmentalism, and geographic information systems. Student presentations. Four hours lecture and discussions. 
Offered in alternate years. 

BIOL 106 The Nature of Life (4 Credits)

Non-teleological account of life using concepts about genes, protein synthesis, reproduction, sex, and evolution. Three hours lecture. 
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only.

BIOL 107 Concepts of Biology (3-4 Credits)

Exploration of various concepts selected from evolution, ecology, genetics, physiology, morphology, development, and behavior. Four hours lecture and laboratory.

BIOL 108 Nature Study (3-4 Credits)

Biological phenomena observable in natural flora and fauna, including ecology, behavior, life cycles, and evolution. Emphasis on understanding plants and animals observed in nature. Four hours lecture and discussion.

BIOL 109 Contemporary Issues in Ecology (4 Credits)

Environmentally oriented issues of current concern as they relate to fundamental generalizations about ecology. Sharpens the layman’s critical powers of observation and analysis and provides tools for intelligent decision making. Three hours lecture and three hours lab.
Offered as needed.

BIOL 110 Human Biology (4 Credits)

Designed to present a general knowledge of the human body in health and disease. Topics include exercise physiology, nutrition, human heredity and genetic testing, mechanisms of disease, cancer, infectious and emerging illnesses, and gene therapy. The format will include lecture-discussion and laboratory experiments.
Offered as needed.

BIOL 111 Introduction to Marine Biology (4 Credits)

An introduction to the marine environment. Emphasis will be on the geologic history, inhabitants, and ecology of marine ecosystems. Evolutionary history and adaptations of various groups of marine organisms will be addressed. There also will be several optional field trips to coastal sites. 
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only.

BIOL 112 Exploring Microbes: The Good, the Bad, and the Tiny (4 Credits)

Basic concepts in microbiology are explored by studying organisms, both harmful and beneficial, in our surroundings. Viruses, fungi, and bacteria are studied in the laboratory. Students design and implement a long-term research project during the semester. 
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only.

BIOL 113 The Evolution of Biology (3-4 Credits)

The course traces the development of ideas to explain the great diversity of living things, from the ancient Greeks to Charles Darwin and his theory of the evolution by natural selection, advances in evolutionary biology since Darwin, and the explanatory power of evolutionary theory and its impact on society.

BIOL 114 Biology of Food (4 Credits)

Exploration of biological concepts through the topic of food. Topics covered may include nutrition, food science, and traditional and alternative agriculture. Scientific literacy and scientific method are emphasized. Six hours integrated lecture and lab. 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only.
Offered as needed.

BIOL 116 Neuroscience of Meditation (3 Credits)

Meditation can be a personal or group practice, but it is also a topic of scientific investigation. Students will try a variety of meditative techniques, conduct laboratory experiments to assess the impact of meditation on the brain and body, and read recent scientific articles on meditation and neuroscience.
Numeric and Evaluation grade only.

BIOL 120 Biology of Exercise and Athletic Performance (4 Credits)

Introduction to the biology of how the human body functions during and adapts to physical activity. Investigates the structure and function of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the responses of the body to exercise, adaptation to training, metabolism, and nutrition, and the causes and prevention of common injuries. In laboratory, students study functional anatomy and conduct physiology experiments; some labs will involve gym activities. 
Offered as needed. 
Numeric grade only.

BIOL 160 Introductory Topics in Biology (3-4 Credits)

Topics in biology of interest to non-majors.

BIOL 200 Principles of Biology: Unity and Diversity (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of the diversity of living organisms and how organisms meet the challenges faced by all living things. Laboratory work emphasizes quantitative data collection and analysis while introducing students to biological diversity and physiological techniques.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131.

BIOL 201 Principles of Biology II: Molecular/Cellular Biology and Genetics (4 Credits)

Introduction to the study of life including molecules and biological processes, the structure of cells, and molecular and transmission genetics. Laboratory work emphasizes biochemical and genetic techniques, data collection and analysis. 
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 or by permission.

BIOL 238 Ecology, Evolution and Behavior (4 Credits)

An introduction to ecology, including populations and their environments. The course will provide an introduction to the study of animal behavior and the topic of conservation. Laboratory work will include field trips to biological communities of Southern California and the collection and analysis of quantitative data.
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and BIOL 201 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133).

BIOL 239 Molecular Genetics and Heredity (4 Credits)

This course emphasizes the importance of molecular genetics in contemporary biology. Patterns of inheritance, gene structure and function, and techniques using recombinant DNA technology will be emphasized. Laboratory includes classical genetic analysis as well as molecular and biochemical techniques. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and 201 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133).

BIOL 250 Introduction to Digital Biology (3-4 Credits)

An introduction to selected theories, research, applications and technologies, including hardware and software, that flow from an examination of the relations between the structures and functions of digital computers and those of living organisms. Projects, investigation, and student presentations. Six hours lecture/demonstration/applications. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 239. Offered as needed.

BIOL 260 Topics in Biology (1-4 Credits)

Topics of current interest in biology are covered. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 317 Human Anatomy (4 Credits)

In-depth study of the structure of the human body through lecture/discussions and laboratory exercises. Laboratories will involve examination of anatomical models and dissection of preserved specimens. Six hours lecture/ laboratory. Offered in alternate years. Students may not earn credit in both BIOL 317 and BIOL 337. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133). 
Numeric grade only.

BIOL 320 Marine Conservation (3 Credits)

Travel course to investigate the ecology of coastal waters and how organisms are adapted to diverse habitats. A case study approach will illustrate threats to the local animal species and their environment. Meetings with experts will provide a variety of viewpoints on these complex conservation topics. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 or EVST 100 (or BIOL 133).

BIOL 325 Medical Genetics (3-4 Credits)

Clinical aspects of genetic disease and current issues in medical genetics. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic diseases; rare inheritance patterns (anticipation, imprinting); complex genetics (diabetes, obesity, mental illness, cancer); gene therapy; embryonic stem cells/ cloning; genetic counseling; ethics; and governmental legislation. Intensive writing and reading of primary literature. No laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 326 Neuroscience (4 Credits)

Study of cellular/molecular mechanisms, anatomy, circuitry, and functions of the nervous system. Emphasis on clinical neurology and experimental methods. Includes topics such as the senses, movement, language, emotions, consciousness, and learning. The laboratory includes descriptive and hypothesis testing activities. Credit cannot be received for both BIOL 104 and BIOL 326. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239 or PSYC 300. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 331 Ecology (4 Credits)

Analysis of the biotic and abiotic factors controlling the distribution and abundance of plant and animal species. Emphasis on ecological relationships of individuals and populations. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 (or BIOL 133). 
Offered in alternate years.

BIOL 332 Nutrition (4 Credits)

The physiology, biochemistry, and practical aspects of nutrition along with an examination of current controversial issues. Four-and-a-half hours of lecture. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 333 Evolutionary Medicine (4 Credits)

Humans are the products of three billion years of evolution. Our evolutionary legacy can shed interesting light on many medical problems. The course discusses such topics as the evolution of aging and death, coevolution with our parasites, and medical problems associated with our recent very novel environment. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 200 and BIOL 201.

BIOL 334 Comparative Physiology (4 Credits)

Comparison at the cellular, organ, and whole animal levels of physiological adaptations exhibited by various invertebrate and vertebrate animals, including humans. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Students may not earn credit in both BIOL 334 and BIOL 344. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 336 Botany (4 Credits)

Comprehensive exploration of plants from cellular to organismal level. Topics include anatomy, morphology, fundamentals of physiology, and systematics. Lab work and fieldwork are stressed. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 200 or EVST 100 (or BIOL 131). 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 337 Vertebrate Anatomy (4 Credits)

Comparative study of vertebrates as whole organisms. Laboratory work is entirely devoted to anatomical structure. Lectures primarily cover morphology and evolution. Six hours laboratory/lecture. Students may not earn credit for both BIOL 317 and BIOL 337.
Prerequisite(s): BIOL 238 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133). 
Offered in alternate years.

BIOL 338 Cell Biology (4 Credits)

Structure and function of cells, with emphasis on events outside the nucleus. Study of cytoskeleton, bioenergetics, intracellular communication, control of cell division, and sorting of proteins to appropriate organelles. Laboratory includes fluorescence microscopy, in vitro reconstitution of cellular processes, and subcellular fractionation. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory/discussion.
Prerequisite: BIOL 239. 
Offered in alternate years.

BIOL 339 Zoology (4 Credits)

Investigation of the major animal phyla, illuminating the widely different ways in which functioning animals are constructed. Emphasis on protozoans and arthropods. Dissection is involved. Experience in recognizing and culturing invertebrates. Six hours laboratory/lecture.
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133). 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 340 Conservation Biology (4 Credits)

Analysis of the ecology, population biology, and behavior that is needed to understand the process of extinction. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or EVST 100 (or BIOL 131 and BIOL 133). 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 341 Observations in the ER (1 Credits)

Provides an opportunity to observe in the emergency room at Loma Linda University Medical Center or Arrowhead County Hospital and to explore some of the issues generated by those observations. May be repeated for degree credit up to 2 credits, with preference given to non-repeating students. 
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 342 Advanced Molecular Genetics and Genomics (4 Credits)

Exploration of the analysis of nucleic acid and protein sequence through the use of computer software and high throughput molecular methods. Topics include genome sequencing, the study of gene expression and function, and applications in medicine. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 239.
Offered as needed.

BIOL 343 Microbiology (4 Credits)

Study of microorganisms: their structure, taxonomy, metabolism, genetics, and interactions with humans. Laboratory includes cell culture, microbe isolation and identification, and bacterial genetics. Six hours lecture/laboratory.
Prerequisite: BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 344 Human Physiology (4 Credits)

Functioning of the human body at the cellular, systems, and whole animal level. Emphasis on nervous, endocrine, renal, and cardiovascular systems and their interrelationships. Students may not earn credit for both BIOL 334 and BIOL 344. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 345 Immunology (4 Credits)

Study of the physiological, molecular, and cellular basis of host defense. Emphasis will be on the human immune system and its pathogens. Diseases of the immune system, such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and AIDS will also be examined. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 239.

BIOL 346 Aquatic Biology (3 Credits)

Ecology, ecological physiology, and natural history of selected aquatic organisms. Biology of rivers, lakes, and the marine intertidal and subtidal zones. Introduction to physical oceanography, limnology, and potamology. Implications for water pollution control, water resource development, and water-related human activities. Field trips. Two hours lecture and six hours laboratory.  
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. 
Offered in alternate years.

BIOL 348 Developmental Biology (4 Credits)

Descriptive and experimental approach to the development of selected vertebrate and invertebrate animals from fertilization through aging. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory.
Prerequisite: BIOL 239. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 350 Plant Ecology (3 Credits)

Interactions of plants with their environment at population, community, and ecosystem levels. Exploring plant communities in a selected region, considering land use history, discussing regional conservation and restoration challenges, and learning methods of plant ecology fieldwork. Fieldwork-intensive, with observations complementing lecture and discussion. Two hours lecture and four hours fieldwork. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 or EVST 100 (or BIOL 133).

BIOL 352 Animal Behavior (4 Credits)

Evolution of social behavior, with an emphasis on the ecological factors that mold species’ social organization. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 238 (or BIOL 133). 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 353 Biological Evolution (4 Credits)

Analysis of the status of neo-Darwinism, emphasizing areas of controversy. Essays and problem sets provide training in evolutionary reasoning. Three hours lecture. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 and BIOL 239 (or BIOL 133 and BIOL 239). 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 360 Advanced Topics in Biology (4 Credits)

Recent research developments in biology. An in-depth analysis of the primary literature and the interconnection of fields commonly divided into separate courses will be emphasized. Topics vary with semester. Examples include human genetics, developmental genetics, and cancer biology. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 238 or BIOL 239. May be repeated for degree credit for maximum of 8 credits with the instructor’s permission. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 394 Junior Seminar (0 Credits)

Recent advances in biology presented in a seminar format by Redlands faculty, seniors, and visiting scholars.
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 403 Research in Molecular and Cellular Biology (1-3 Credits)

Genes, proteins, and cellular processes studied through experimental work. One discussion period, three hours laboratory, and additional independent laboratory time expected. May be repeated for degree credit for a maximum of 6 credits.
Prerequisite: by permission. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 404 Research in Evolution and Behavior of Vertebrates (2-3 Credits)

Evolution and/or behavior of selected vertebrates studied through experimental work. One discussion period, three hours laboratory, and additional independent laboratory time expected. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Prerequisites: BIOL 239 and by permission.
Offered as needed.

BIOL 405 Research in Molecular Biology of Development (3 Credits)

Research in developmental biology of vertebrate embryos using molecular and embryological techniques. One discussion period, three hours laboratory, and additional independent laboratory time expected. May be repeated for degree credit for a maximum of 6 credits.
Prerequisite: by permission. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 406 Research in Bio-systems Modeling (2-3 Credits)

Analysis modeling and simulation of biological systems, with emphasis on use of computers. Applications to actual design and planning projects. One discussion period, three hours laboratory, and additional independent laboratory time expected. May be repeated for degree credit. 
Prerequisite: by permission.
Offered as needed.

BIOL 408 Research in Physiology of Vertebrates (2-3 Credits)

Physiological analysis of selected vertebrate systems studied through experimental work. One discussion period, three hours laboratory, and additional independent laboratory time expected. 
Prerequisite: BIOL 334 or BIOL 344 or by permission. 
Offered as needed.

BIOL 460 Research Topics in Biology (1-3 Credits)

Selected areas of biology studied through experimental work. Areas selected range from the molecular-cellular level, to plants and animals, to ecology and the environment. One discussion period, three hours laboratory, and additional independent laboratory time expected. May be repeated for degree credit for a maximum of 6 credits. 
Offered as needed. 
Numeric and Evaluation grade only.

BIOL 495 Senior Seminar (1 Credits)

In the fall, the course covers B.A. capstone and career development. In the spring, seniors present their capstone projects (B.A.), senior research (B.S.), or honors projects. 
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 496 Senior Seminar (1 Credits)

In the fall, the course covers B.A. capstone and career development. In the spring, seniors present their capstone projects (B.A.), senior research (B.S.), or honors projects. 
Credit/no credit only.

BIOL 499 Honors Research Project (2-4 Credits)

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