Undergraduate students must complete the graduation requirements as stated in the catalog in effect for the year of formal admission, or the catalog in effect for the year of graduation. A student is not free to select graduation requirements from more than one catalog. If a student is readmitted, the requirements prevailing at the time of readmission or graduation must be met.
Quantity and Quality of Work
To graduate, students must complete all of the requirements of their degree programs and earn at least 128 credits of academic credit.
Students must maintain a grade point average (GPA) of 2.00 or better in all work taken at the University of Redlands. In addition, they must maintain a GPA of 2.00 or better in their major field and in their minor or related field. Quality grade points (derived from numeric grading) are not awarded for transfer work or courses taken on a Credit/No Credit basis, and credits for these courses are not calculated in the GPA.
College of Arts and Sciences undergraduates may apply up to 8 activity credits distributed between Community Service Activity (limit of 3 credits), Physical Education Activity (limit of 4 credits), and University Activity. (Community Service Activity is described later in this section. Physical Education Activities are described in the Physical Education section; University Activity is described in the Additional Course Offerings section.)
The minimum residence requirement for the bachelor’s degree is one year, during which no fewer than 32 credits must be completed successfully. The last two semesters before graduation must be taken in residence at Redlands except for students studying in approved off-campus programs such as the Salzburg Semester, or for students following approved professional programs, in which case the final undergraduate year is completed at a professional school.
First-Year Seminars are 4-credit courses that begin in New Student Week and continue through the entire Fall semester. All new students entering the University are required to take a First-Year Seminar during their first term at Redlands. First-Year Seminars provide every student with a close personal relationship with a faculty member who not only teaches the course but also serves as academic advisor and mentor to class members, introducing them to college-level skills as well as assisting them in planning their academic program. Students select from a list of seminars that changes each year. Most seminars are interdisciplinary in focus, and students are encouraged to select seminars according to interest, regardless of their possible majors. Past seminar offerings have included topics such as Popular Culture in China and Japan, Amazing India, human rights, the Rise of American Capitalism, Shakespeare and Film, and History of Jazz.
Community Service and Engagement
All students are required to successfully complete an approved community service learning activity – a Community Service Activity (CSAC) for students fulfilling the Liberal Arts Foundation requirements or a Community Engagement and Reflection (CER) for students fulfilling the Liberal Arts Inquiry requirements (see the General Education section of this catalog). Activities typically consist of service outreach at a nonprofit agency, hospital, or school. Students gain a greater understanding of problems faced by individuals and communities through meaningful participation in, and reflection on, efforts to help address such challenges.
Students may undertake their required CSAC/CER during any semester, May Term, or summer; may do so while in residence at Redlands or at approved locations outside Redlands (e.g., one’s hometown); may fulfill the requirement through faculty-taught courses that emphasize active learning through service (generally, permission to enroll is required), through CSAC/CER 360 special topics courses, or through courses cross-listed with Community Service Learning. Students should check in the Schedule of Classes for available opportunities.
Students completing the CSAC/CER requirement should be aware of the program announcements published by the Office of Community Service Learning each semester. May Term CSAC/CER information sessions are offered during the Spring semester. All CSAC/CER preparatory information is discussed at these sessions, along with information regarding faculty-taught, service-learning courses. Students fulfilling CSAC/CER during summer should be aware that preparatory work must be completed during Spring semester or May Term prior to a summer CSAC/CER placement. Registration for those completing service over the summer takes place the following Fall. Students are encouraged to visit the Office of Community Service Learning for details and service opportunities.
Application for Graduation
Students must file a formal application for graduation in the Registrar’s Office by the first semester of their senior year.
Some major programs require passing a comprehensive examination. (See individual program descriptions.) These exams are usually scheduled during the first semester of the senior year.
General Education Program
The College is transitioning from the Liberal Arts Foundations to Liberal Arts Inquiry general education requirements. Entering first-year and transfer students who are entering the University with less than 32 credits will meet their general education requirements by completing the LAI. Continuing students, transfer students, and readmitted student who are enrolling in the University with 64 credits or more in the 2019-2020 school year, or 96 credits in the 2020-2021 school year will meet their general education requirements by completing the LAF. This will hold true even if a student declares a new major that did not exist prior to the implementation of the LAI or chooses to meet major requirements for the catalog year they graduate.
A student who transfers to Redlands may apply acceptable courses taken at any regionally accredited institution toward all Liberal Arts Foundation or Liberal Arts Inquiry requirements.
The specific requirements for the BA and BS degrees are found below. For Foundation requirements applying to the BM, please see ”Graduation Requirements for the Bachelor of Music” in the Music section in this Catalog.
The Liberal Arts Foundation
The Liberal Arts Foundation endows students with the fundamental skills essential to effective learning and scholarship. It also challenges them to examine their own values and the values of society. By integrating the Foundation with an area of concentration and carefully chosen elective courses, students obtain an education that offers both breadth of learning and depth of understanding.
Every student working for a bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree is required to successfully complete, in each of the categories listed below, at least one approved course of at least 3 credits. In some categories, pairings of two 2-credit courses have been approved. If a course is approved for more than one Liberal Arts Foundation category, it will satisfy each of those requirements simultaneously.
The designation “ID” indicates a category that may be satisfied by the completion of an interdisciplinary thematic course, taught by one or more faculty members, which has been approved for that category by the College of Arts and Sciences Curriculum Committee. Courses taken to fulfill the Liberal Arts Foundation must be taken for a numeric grade or evaluation, except in those instances where a course is offered only on a Credit/No Credit basis.
Creative Process (CP)
Creative exploration of an expressive medium requires sustained engagement with, and production of, an art form. Students completing the CP requirement will:
•work in a sustained way with the tools and techniques specific to a creative medium;
•participate in perceptive, responsible critique with instructors and/or peers;
•engage with the conceptual, aesthetic, and technical challenges of performing or creating art.
Cross-cultural Studies (CC)
Knowledge of different cultures plays a vital role in developing a broader perspective on the world and encouraging a deepened understanding of one’s own cultural experience. One can gain insight into a culture through the study of topics including, but not limited to, politics, literature, art, history, and/or religion. Students completing an approved study abroad program or a course fulfilling the CC requirement will demonstrate:
•knowledge of the culture of another country or people;
•the ability to make critical comparisons between two or more cultures;
•an awareness of how culture is instrumental in shaping one’s worldview.
Dominance and Difference (DD)
In order to challenge assumptions and stereotypes in the contemporary world, and to understand the experience of those who have historically lacked power, it is necessary to engage critically with dominant structures of inequality. These include but are not limited to discriminatory attitudes based on gender, race or ethnicity, class, religion, sexual orientation, and physical ability. Students completing the DD will demonstrate:
•a capacity to articulate concepts such as prejudice, stereotyping, objectification and oppression, and to analyze their manifestations in institutional and interpersonal settings;
•skills in understanding the ways in which difference, inequality, and marginalization have been socially constructed, either in the United States or elsewhere;
•an ability to reflect on issues of identity, difference, and opposition to structures of dominance in a manner that encourages recognition of a plurality of values.
Foreign Language (FL)
At the novice-mid level as defined by the American Council on Teaching of Foreign Languages, or an analogous level for languages not covered by those standards, students completing the FL will, as a minimum*:
•deepen their understanding of the nature and structure of language by comparing structures in the learned language to structures in their first language;
•communicate in a language other than their first language using basic skills such as reading, writing, listening, signing and speaking;
•identify cultural and cross-cultural contexts that inform language.
* Foreign Language (FL) requirement:
BA: Complete a two-course sequence at the 100–200 level or one course at the 300–level.
BS: Complete one course at the 102 level or higher.
Human Behavior (HB)
Social scientific inquiry informs understanding of social phenomena and provides a context for human judgment. Students completing the HB will demonstrate:
•comprehension of the basic concepts, theories, and methods that advance our understanding of human behavior (at the individual and societal levels);
• understanding of what constitutes data and how to draw valid conclusions about human action from such data;
•an ability to evaluate the implications of such study for issues of social concern.
Students earning a BA degree fulfill this category by completing one appropriately designated course from each of the three areas (history, literature, and philosophy).
Students earning a BS degree may choose one course each from two of the three categories.
Humanities History (HH)
Students completing the HH will:
•engage with historical inquiry and interpretation;
•analyze primary sources;
•articulate and understand patterns of continuity and change in the domains of human endeavor within and across societies and over time;
•reflect on the nature of historical narratives and perspectives.
Humanities Literature (HL)
Engagement with literary texts—poetry, drama, scripture, fiction, non-fiction, and film—helps to develop rhetorical skills, a sensitivity to language and its uses, and an awareness of literature’s potential to transform one’s ideas, perceptions, and beliefs. Students completing the HL will demonstrate:
•skills in the analysis of literary forms and conventions;
•the capacity to build effective arguments and defend a critical position both orally and in writing;
•the ability to situate texts within shifting historical or ideological contexts.
Humanities Philosophy (HP)
Philosophical reflection and investigations of religious thought and practice pose fundamental questions about the nature of reality, the possibility of knowledge, and the meaning of life. Students completing the HP requirement will demonstrate:
•an ability to investigate and analyze the assumptions underlying systems of inquiry and belief;
•skills in understanding and investigating philosophical or religious concepts;
•a capacity to think critically about their own worldviews as well as those of others.
Mathematics and Science (MS1, MS2, and MS3)
Mathematics and the natural sciences extend our knowledge of the physical universe and are the foundation of technologies that affect nearly every aspect of our society. As a result, an understanding of these disciplines is important to individuals’ ability to make informed decisions about issues affecting themselves, their community, and the world at large.
Natural Science with Lab (MS1)
Natural science courses give students understanding of the range and limitations of scientific knowledge. They emphasize the central role of observation and experimentation in the scientific method. Students completing an MS1 will demonstrate:
•knowledge of the basic concepts and accepted theoretical principles in a particular scientific discipline;
•knowledge of how a particular scientific discipline advances understanding of the physical world through its application of the scientific method;
•the ability to apply the scientific method through the acquisition and analysis of data within a laboratory or field setting.
Students completing the MS2 requirement will:
•competently solve problems using mathematical tools, including constructing and analyzing mathematical models;
•correctly employ mathematical reasoning, including mathematical logic, proof, and generalization; and
• clearly communicate mathematical concepts to others.
Computer Science, Mathematics, or Labor Non-Lab Science (MS3)
Disciplines in mathematics and science span a vast array of human endeavors ranging from atoms to galaxies and from computer languages to genetic codes. An additional course in these fields provides a broader perspective on their approaches and cumulative knowledge base for navigating our technology-dependent and data-rich society. Students completing a course fulfilling the MS3, or a second course fulfilling an MS1 or MS2, will demonstrate:
•knowledge of the basic concepts and accepted theoretical principles in some field or fields of science, mathematics, or computer science; the ability to solve problems in some science, mathematics, or computer science discipline;
•knowledge of how science, mathematics, or computer science directly affects our technology, our lives, or our understanding of the world.
State and Economy (SE)
Responsible citizenship requires an ability to understand and analyze the political and economic institutions in which one participates. Students completing the SE requirement will demonstrate:
•knowledge of the theoretical principles and actual practices defining economic and political institutions;
•familiarity with the language and methods used in critical engagement with these institutions;
•an ability to apply political or economic theory to the complexities of citizenship.
Writing Across the Curriculum (WA and WB)
Writing is both a powerful learning tool and an important means for expressing thought. Students will develop their ability to communicate effectively and clearly in writing by completing at least two writing-intensive courses: 1) one lower-division, writing-intensive course corresponding to placement explained below (WA) and 2) an upper-division, writing-intensive course in the junior or senior year that concentrates on forms of writing appropriate to the major (WB).
Lower Division Writing (WA)
Students will complete a lower-division writing intensive course.
Students completing the WA will demonstrate:
• the ability to compose and revise critical essays that develop reasoned positions;
• the ability to respond to and incorporate the work of other writers into their own writing;
• proper source citation and avoiding plagiarism.
To determine lower-division (WA) writing placement, AP, SAT, and ACT scores submitted by entering first-year students are used to decide which courses best match a student’s preparation. For transfer students, we consider test scores for placement only if the student has no credit in transferable writing courses.
For questions about how test scores are used to determine writing placement, please consult with your academic advisor or contact the Director of Writing.
Upon arrival, students receive notification of their writing placement in one of the following categories (Placement details are in italics)
Code 1 — WA Satisfied
Lower-division writing requirement is complete. Enroll in a course labeled WB in the current schedule of classes after attaining full junior standing. Transfer credit, AP Lang & Comp 4–5, or IB higher level English A: Language and Literature score of 5 or above.
Code 2 — WA-designated course
Complete a course labeled WA in the current schedule of classes to satisfy the lower division writing requirement (ideally in the first year; must be completed by the end of the sophomore year). After attaining full junior standing, complete a course labeled WB in the current schedule of classes. SAT EWR = 590 or above, or ACT English + Writing Total= 45 or above.
Code 4 — English 102
For transfer students with sophomore standing, no test scores, no transfer writing credit. Complete English 102 (Academic Writing Seminar) with a minimum 2.0 grade by the end of the first year on campus. After attaining full junior standing, complete a course labeled WB in the current schedule of classes.
Code 5 — English 102 + second WA
Complete English 102 (Academic Writing Seminar) with a minimum 2.0 grade AND complete an additional class labeled WA in the current schedule of classes by the end of the sophomore year. After attaining full junior standing, complete a course labeled WB in the current schedule of classes.
Transfer students below sophomore level and without transfer writing credit or qualifying test scores must complete both English 102 plus an additional class labeled WA in the current schedule of classes by the end of their first year on campus. SAT EWR between 530–580 OR ACT English + Writing between 37–45.
Code 6 — English 100 + English 102
Complete English 100 (Analytical Reading and Writing) in the first semester AND English 102 (Academic Writing Seminar) with a minimum 2.0 grade as soon as possible after completing English 100 (must be completed by the end of the sophomore year). After attaining full junior standing, complete a course labeled WB in the current schedule of classes. SAT EWR below 530 OR ACT English + Writing below 37; also for students below sophomore standing with no transfer credit and with no test scores.
Upper Division Writing (WB)
Students will complete an upper-division writing-intensive course in the junior or senior year that concentrates on forms of writing appropriate to the major. Students completing the WB will demonstrate:
• the ability to write thoughtfully in the genres appropriate to a specific discipline;
• an awareness of conventions for communicating in writing within a specific discipline;
• the ability to use feedback to revise their writing so as to communicate effectively with a specific disciplinary audience.
First Year Seminar (FYS)
Students fulfill this requirement by completing one course that bears the appropriate designation.
Areas of Inquiry
A single course may satisfy at most two Areas of Inquiry outcomes, only one of which can be an Inquiries into Practices outcome. Additionally, these courses may host embedded experiences. At least four disciplines (programs or departments) must be represented in the collection of courses that satisfy the Area of Inquiry requirements.
Inquiries into Practices across the Liberal Arts (C, H, N, and S)
A broad, liberal-arts education requires sampling the disparate practices we use to explore and create: Creative Practice, Humanities Practice, Natural Sciences Practice, and Social Scientific Practice.
Creative Practice (C)
Humanities Practice (H)
Natural Scientific Practice (N)
Social Scientific Practice (S)
Students fulfill the requirements of this category by completing four appropriately-designated courses, one from each of four areas; no more than two can bear the same department/program alpha.
Inquiries into Self and Society (APW, ESS, CPI, and TG)
In a highly connected but also complex and fractured world, individuals and communities draw on values and beliefs to create systems of meaning, which inform their thoughts and actions and can guide appropriate and ethical action. Preparing to be global citizens, students will explore how people make sense of the world in diverse ways, even as they question received assumptions and cultural conventions.
Analyzing Perspectives and Worldviews (APW)
Evaluating Self in Society (ESS)
Critiquing Power and Inequalities (CPI)
Thinking Globally (TG)
Students fulfill the requirements of this category by completing courses that bear the four designations; since a single course may bear up to two of these designations, two to four courses may be required.
Literacies and Skills
No course can satisfy more than 2 embedded experiences.
Community Engagement & Reflection Embedded Experience (CER)
Students will participate in, and reflect on, efforts to help address problems faced by individuals and communities. Students will engage in active citizenship, using community-based learning to explore their role in society as agents for change. Students who meet this requirement will:
• clearly describe problems and challenges faced by the individuals or communities with whom the student served;
• thoughtfully describe their personal growth and development as responsible citizens during their service;
• accurately describe and analyze or evaluate organizations and communities using knowledge acquired through community service.
Foreign Language Learning (FL)
Focused study of a language other than one's first language promises multiple pedagogical benefits beyond language proficiency itself, providing students opportunities to extend their cross-cultural understanding and to practice their skills for communication across national, social and cultural boundaries. As such, language learning is an essential step to global citizenship. At the novice-mid level as defined by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, or an analogous level for languages not covered by these standards, students taking language courses will:
• deepen their understanding of the nature and structure of language by comparing structures in the learned language to structures in their first language;
• communicate/interact in a language other than their first language using basic skills such as reading, writing, listening, signing, and speaking;
• identify distinctive perspectives embedded in a language and its cultural/cross-cultural context.
BA: Complete a two-course sequence at the 100-200 level or one course at the 300-level or higher.
BS: Complete one course at the 102 level or higher.
Information and Media Literacy (IMLI and IMLA)
Ideas, perceptions, knowledge, and values are represented via information. Media are the vehicles through which such information is communicated, whether print, visual, audio or digital. When conceived jointly, information and media literacy involves the ability to interpret and critically negotiate information as well as to create meaning via information. Courses designated as satisfying the IML requirement will devote a significant portion of instructional and student production to IML concepts and skills.
Introductory Embedded Experience (IMLI)
As a result of taking this course, students will:
• assess what type of information is needed and choose appropriate tools for locating, accessing, and comprehending that information (Examples: defining research topic/prospectus);
• critically evaluate various forms of information and mediated communication and data, whether print, digital, visual, or audio (Examples: book review, discussion);
• with an awareness of their purposes, audiences, and modes of production and expression, effectively read, comprehend, use, and summarize information and media (Examples: literature review, annotated bibliography).
NOTE: All courses fulfilling WR/IMLI also fulfill IMLI.
Advanced Embedded Experience (IMLA)
As a result of taking this course, students will:
• interpret information within the contexts and conditions of its production, distribution, and use (Examples: research papers, presentations, posters, portfolios, maps, exhibitions, performances);
• analyze and synthesize information to solve problems and develop compelling arguments and interpretations (Examples: research papers, presentations, posters, portfolios, maps, exhibitions, performances).
Students complete the requirement of this category by taking courses with these embedded-experience designations.
Oral Communication Embedded Experience (OC)
Oral communication is an essential skill needed in both professional and personal lives. The goal of the embedded Speaking experience is to provide focused opportunities for students to learn public speaking skills which enable them to be more comfortable and confident when communicating their ideas in an oral format. Students will complete a minimum of two presentations of at least five minutes each.
In each presentation, students will:
• prepare an oral presentation that is organized, coherent, well-supported, and appropriate for the purpose and audience;
• deliver an oral presentation that effectively communicates ideas and positions while constructively engaging the audience or participants.
Students complete this requirement by taking one course with this embedded-experience designation.
Quantitative Reasoning (QRF and QRE)
An ever-growing wealth of quantitative data calls for the ability to use numerical information appropriately when solving problems and constructing sound arguments. In courses in this category, students will explore contextual problems involving quantitative relationships by means of numerical, symbolic, and visual representations. These courses focus on creating and discussing models; making appropriate assumptions; and deducing consequences or making predictions. Finally, they foster critical analysis of the uses and limitations of quantitative information and its representations.
Quantitative Reasoning Foundation (QRF)
In the foundational course focused on quantitative reasoning, students who have gained this competence will:
• explore contextual problems involving quantitative relationships by means of numerical, visual, and symbolic representations;
• construct, refine, and apply quantitative models to draw well-reasoned conclusions;
• identify potential limitations to models and analyses, including restrictive assumptions, uncertainties in data, and errors in reasoning.
Quantitative Reasoning Embedded Experience (QRE)
In the embedded experience, students will apply logical and quantitative reasoning skills to problems in a specific discipline or disciplines. Specifically, students will:
• explore contextual problems in a specific discipline or disciplines that involve quantitative relationships by means of numerical, symbolic, or visual representations;
• construct, refine, and apply quantitative models in a specific discipline or disciplines to draw well-reasoned conclusions;
• identify potential limitations to models and analyses in specific disciplines, including: restrictive assumptions, uncertainties in data, and errors in reasoning.
Students complete the requirement of this category by taking one course with the QRF designation and one with the QRE embedded-experience designation.
Writing (WF, WR, and WD)
Writing, as thinking in action, is both a method of disciplined inquiry and way of representing an informed position based on a sophisticated awareness of situation, genre, and convention. Writing as a practice occurs throughout the curriculum, and it promotes responses to complex ideas and scholarly conversations, as well as the production of arguments that question various assumptions, values, and modes of reasoning.
Academic Writing Foundations (WF)
In the foundational course, students will focus on academic writing. Offered as an introductory disciplinarily-based seminar, this course cultivates intellectual engagement and develops academic literacy through guided practice in critical reading and analytical writing from sources. 100 level. Students who have gained the competence will:
• practice writing as a generative and recursive decision-making process;
• learn and use a vocabulary about writing to identify the moves effective academic writing makes;
• Produce multi-draft, analytical writing projects, integrating ideas and perspectives from sources.
To determine writing placement, AP, SAT, and ACT scores submitted by entering first-year students are used to decide which courses best match a student’s preparation. For transfer students, we consider test scores for placement only if the student has no credit in transferable writing courses.
Upon arrival, students receive notification of their writing placement in one of the following categories. Placement details are in italics; for more information about how test scores are used to determine writing placement, please consult with your academic advisor or contact the Director of Writing.
Code I – WF Satisfied
The writing-foundations requirement is satisfied.
Transfer credit, AP Lang & Comp 4-5, or IB higher-level English A = 5 or above.
Code II – WF-designated Course Required
The writing-foundations requirement will be satisfied by completing one course labeled WF in the current schedule of classes (ideally in the first year; must be completed by the end of the sophomore year).
SAT ERW = 590 or above or ACT English + Writing Total = 45 or above.
Code III – English 102 Course Required
The writing-foundations requirement will be satisfied by completing English 102 (Academic Writing Seminar) with a minimum 2.0 grade by the end of the first year on campus. Transfer students with sophomore standing but neither qualifying test scores nor transfer writing credit.
Code IV – English 102 + English X04 Required
The writing-foundations requirement will be satisfied by completing English 102 (Academic Writing Seminar) with a minimum 2.0 grade AND taking an English X04 (Writing Studio) with a subsequent writing-intensive course by the end of the sophomore year or, for transfer students, the first year on campus. SAT ERW between 530 and 590 OR ACT English + Writing between 37 and 45, Transfer students below sophomore standing but neither qualifying test scores nor transfer writing credit.
Code V – English 100 + English 102 Required
The writing-foundations requirement will be satisfied by completing English 100 (Analytical Reading and Writing) in the first semester AND English 102 (Academic Writing Seminar) with a minimum 2.0 grade as soon as possible after completing English 100; must be completed by end of the sophomore year. SAT ERW below 530 OR ACT English + Writing below 37; also for students below sophomore standing with no transfer credit and with no test scores.
Research and Information & Media Literacy Introduction Embedded Experience (WR/IMLI)
In the first embedded experience, students within the context of discipline-based inquiry will extend the foundations by focusing on information fluency, research strategy, and practice in composing reference-dense texts (also satisfies IMLI requirement which means it counts as 2 embedded experiences). Students who have gained the competence will:
• develop research ability by practicing core information literacy strategies: choosing appropriate tools and locating and selecting relevant, credible information;
• critically evaluate various forms of potential sources and their value in print, digital, visual, and audio genres;
• produce at least one multi-draft writing project, using reference conventions and integrating sources appropriate to the audience, task, and compositional mode, taking into consideration the sources’ own audiences tasks, and modes.
Writing in the Discipline Embedded Experience (WD)
In the second embedded experience, students will focus on the kinds of writing and reasoning characteristically used in the field. This is an upper-division writing experience embedded in the major’s coursework. The course builds directly on WF and WR/IML. 300-400 level. Students who have gained the competence will:
• pursue and represent in writing disciplinary questions and projects using the core interpretive strategies of the field;
• adapt writing processes and research strategies to the contexts of disciplinary study;
• produce at least one multi-draft text appropriate to the context of the course, integrating sources using genre-specific forms of reference.
Students complete the requirements of this category by taking the course(s) appropriate for their WF placement and two more courses with the WR/IMLI and WD designations.